Timeline DNA

  • Discorveri of the Nucleo Acids

    Discorveri of the Nucleo Acids
    In the 19th century, Friedrich Wöhler synthesized urea from inorganic compounds, opening the door to research into organic compounds. Johannes Wislicenus discovered nucleic acid in 1868 using a technique of extraction with sulphuric acid and iron chloride. This substance was called nucleic acid, because it was formed by a molecule.
  • Levene's Tetranucleotide

    Levene's Tetranucleotide
    Levene's Tetranucleotide is a theory proposed by American biochemist Phoebus Aaron Theodor Levene. This theory states that the basic structure of nucleic acids is a repeated sequence of four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). This repeated sequence is known as the tetranucleotydic pattern. This theory is considered the basis for the development of molecular biology. This was the first theory to provide an explanation for genetic inheritance.
  • Frederick Griffith and his Transformation Experiment

     Frederick Griffith and his Transformation Experiment
    Frederick Griffith was an English bacteriologist who conducted an experiment known as Griffith's Transformation Experiment. Griffith discovered that a bacterium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, could be transformed into a more pathogenic form. This was discovered by combining a sample of pathogenic bacteria with a sample of non-pathogenous bacteria. This revealed that something in the pathogen sample could be transferred to the non-pathogen bacteria to make it a pathogenic bacterium.
  • Avery, MacLeod and McCarty

    Avery, MacLeod and McCarty
    Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty were American scientists who worked together at the University of Rochester Medical Research Institute from 1944 to 1952. Together they discovered that all living organisms are made of cells and that cells contain genetic materials called DNA. This information contributed to the understanding of modern biology. His findings also enabled future research on the structure and function of DNA, genetic manipulation and biotechnology.
  • Double helix

    Double helix
    James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the double helix structure of DNA. They used previous work by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins to discover the double helix pattern. This new information opened the door to the understanding of the genetic code, as the structure of the double helix allowed the understanding of how genetic information is transported across generations.
  • Erwin Chargoff was Counting Nucleobasesm

    Erwin Chargoff was Counting Nucleobasesm
    Erwin Chargoff was an Austrian biochemist and geneticist and was one of the first to perform a nucleotide count. He published the famous article “On the Nucleic Acids”. In it, he described a method for determining the composition and structure of nucleic acids, which are the basis of genetics. These discoveries had a significant impact on the field of molecular biology and genetics. This information is essential for understanding the mechanisms of heredity and cell biology.
  • Hershey-Chase Experiments

    Hershey-Chase Experiments
    The Hershey–Chase Experiments of 1952 were a series of experiments conducted by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase to demonstrate that viruses are separate genetic entities and contain genetic material. These experiments showed that viruses use nucleic acids to transmit genetic information. To do this, researchers used bacteriophages to infect bacteria with mutations in their genes. The results revealed that the genetic material of the virus passed to the bacterium.
  • Discovery of DNA components

    Discovery of DNA components
    In the 1953s, James Watson and Francis Crick studied the chemical structure of DNA using liquid crystal models. They studied data from experiments by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, which revealed a pattern of X-ray diffraction bands. This was confirmed when Watson and Crick discovered that DNA was composed of two interlaced strands, with a sequence of nitrogenous bases joined by hydrogen bonds, which revealed the function of the molecule.
  • James Watson and Francis Crick

    James Watson and Francis Crick
    Watson and Crick were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for their discovery. Watson's and Crick's work laid the foundation for modern biology and has had a lasting impact on medicine, biology and genetics.
  • Proposed triple helix

    Proposed triple helix
    Linus and Robert proposed a triple helix structure for DNA. They consist of three DNA helix rolled around a central axis with the phosphors groups pointing inward. This structure was proposed in reaction to the double helix structure. The triple helix explained DNA's ability to encode information and replicate itself. They was rejected by the molecular biology community at this time. However, many years later, it was discovered that parts of DNA are structured in the form of a triple helix.
  • Papers in sequence in Nature

    In April, Nature published four papers related to the structure of DNA. The first of these, he described the structure of DNA as a double helix, with complementary nitrogenous bases interspersed on the sides. The second article discussed the discovery of DNA crystals. Third, it focused on X-ray crystallography of DNA crystals. The last article, they proposed an incorrect structure for DNA. These four articles are considered the first scientific evidence