Timeline 6 1900-2000

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    J. Sousa

    Composer who promoted the American wind band tradition. He is known for his marches including: Semper Fidelis (1888), The Washington Post (1889), and Stars and Stripes Forever (1897). He wrote at least 9 operettas and he conducted “The President’s Own” Marine Band.
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    C. Ives

    One of the most innovative and original composers, also one of the great American composers of the first half of the 20th century. His father shaped his style. Most of his works were not known until the 1950’s. His 3rd symphony won a Pulitzer Prize in 1947. he made his living in insurance. He used polytonality, polyrhythms and polymeters, quotations of American tunes and hymns and some says limited atonality but that is debated on. He wrote the Unanswered Questions (1906).
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    R. Dett

    Born in Canada, He helped found the National Association of Negro Musicians (1919). He also studied with Natalie Boulanger
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    L. Russolo

    Italian Futurist painter, composer and builder of experimental musical instruments. He wrote “The Art of Noises” (1913).
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    F. Price

    First Black female composer to have a symphony performed by a major American orchestra. Her first composition was published age 11. She majored in organ and piano performance at the New England Conservatory of Music. Her career flourished in Chicago. Some of her compositions include: Symphony No. 1 in E minor (1932) and Adoration (1951).
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    N. Boulanger

    Taught basically all 20th century American composers except G. Gershwin (He wanted to learn her style instead of making his own). She was a composer but preferred to help other composers find their “voice.” Her devoted her life in honor of her sister.
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    S. Prokofiev

    Russian composer who wrote 7 symphonies, suites, incidental music, 5 piano concertos, 2 violin concertos, 1 cello concerto, operas, ballets, choral music, film scores and more. Some of is works include: “Peter and the Wolf” (1936) which helped develop musical taste in children.
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    L. Boulanger

    Younger sister of Nadia Boulanger. She was arguably the better pianist and composer.
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    W. Still

    First Black American Composer to have a symphony and opera performed by a major ensemble. The first Black American to conduct a major symphony orchestra (1936). He also arranged music for jazz bands, dance orchestras, and films. He often created a style that blended African American idioms into more traditional European genres. The Harlem Renaissance.
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    H. Cowell

    John Cages teacher, he was an American innovator who was drawn to non-Western music. He invented chance music, and he invented new techniques for playing the piano. He coined he term tone cluster. One of his most ground breaking pieces was called “The Tides of Manaunaun” (1912).
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    G. Gershwin

    American composer who wrote classical, concert hall music infused with jazz and popular music. He wrote for broadway, film, and the concert hall. He was a virtuoso pianist and some of his famous works include: An American in Paris and Rhapsody in Blue. His opera Porgy and Bess (1935) is the first opera with an all black cast.
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    D. Ellington

    (Edward Ellington). Major band leader in the swing era and the big band era. He composed hundred of tunes, film scores, concertos, concert pieces, and works for theater. His name is on Take the A Train but he did not compose it.
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    A. Copland

    Composer, teacher, critic, conductor, and sponsor of concerts. He taught at Harvard and conducted festivals in many American schools. He composed in a variety of genres but not a huge amount of works. His style is mostly tonal, he wrote atonal music but that is not his most popular. He studied with Rubin Goldmark and Nadia Boulanger.
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    L. Armstrong

    One of most influential jazz musicians both as a trumpeter and vocalist.
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    E. Carter

    American Composer who was an influential teacher and composer for 50 years.
  • Tone Cluster

    Term used by H. Cowell to describe a group of adjacent notes that were sounded with the fist, palm, or forearm; highly dissonant.
    He did not invent this, he jut named it.
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    J. Cage

    Innovated many modern compositional techniques. Helped change the definition of music. Agreed with Indeterminacy and Aleatory. Cage lead the way by exploring ideas of chance in composition and performance. His composition 4’ 33” (1952) explored the role of silencing music.
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    World War 1

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    B. Holiday

    One of the leading jazz singers, she broke racial barriers by performing with white bands. She’s known for her renditions of blues songs. Billie’s Blues (1936)
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    B. Strayhorn

    Collaborated with Ellington for many years. Composed A Train
  • Jazz

    American musical style that arose in early 20th century around 1916-17. It’s roots are found in West African music.
  • Influenza pandemic

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    L. Bernstein

    Conductor, composer, teachers pianist, lecturer, and TV personality. Composed West Side Story (1957) which the music was very complex
  • National Association of Negro Musicians

    An organization for the purpose of preservation, encouragement and advocacy of all genres of music of Black Americans
  • Expansion of the Radio

    the radio had been around for many years but its popularity rose in the late 1920’s and became a more common household item.
  • The Harlem Renaissance

    W. Still and L. Hughes. Emerged a cultural capital of African American arts. Lasted till the depression in 1930’s but provided a cultural movement into the 1940’s.
  • Scat Singing

    Became popular around 1926 with Louis Armstrong. It is singing on noises syllables
  • Stock Market Crash

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    The Great Depression

  • The Swing Era

    Highly improvisational style of New Orleans jazz. DukeEllington was the most brilliant composer of this style.
  • J. Williams

    Considered one of the best film score composers in America. He did write for more than film. Some of his popular film compositions include: Jaws, Star Wars, E.T., Indiana Jones, Jurassic Park and numerous others.
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    World War 2

  • The big band era

  • Bebop

    The new “cool” jazz. Includes fast tempos and dissonant solos. Popular performers of bebop included Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Bud Powell, and Thelonius Monk
  • Rock and Roll

    Blended the musical styles of jump blues and honky tone with an edgy attitude to create a new genre. Popular artists include Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Little Richard, Buddy Holly, Fats Domino, and Jerry Lee Lewis.
  • Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center

    A studio founded in early 1950’s which began with experiments in music composition involving the new technology of reel-to-reel tape. The studio branched out into all areas of electronic music research
  • MIDI

    Musical Instrument Digital Interface. In 1983 MIDI was officially adopted and incorporated into all new synthesizers. It allows computer interactions with synthesizers and sequences.