• Period: to

    Oscar-Claude Monet

    French painter from the impressionism
    Impression sunrise by Monet is considered the first impressionist painting
  • Period: to

    Pierre-Auguste Renoir

    French painter from the impressionism
  • Period: to

    Gabriel Faure

    was a French composer, organist, pianist and professor.
  • Period: to

    John Philip Sousa

    promoted the American Wind-band tradition
  • Period: to

    Cecile Chaminade

    French composer and pianist
    Was the first female composer to be awarded The Legion d`Honneur
    Some important works:
    Op. 19 La Seville, comic opera (1882)
    Op. 20 Suite d`Orchestre (1881)
    Op. 35 Six Etudes de concert (Enoch) (1886)
    op. 89 Lolita. Caprice Espagnol (Enoch) (1890)
    Les Reves (1891)
  • Period: to

    Edward Elgar

    English composer of Symphonies, piano works, choral music, chamber music, overtures
    received international acclaim
  • Period: to

    Giacomo Puccini

    Italian opera composer, the most successful one after Verdi
    Composed 10 Operas, vocal works, and a few chamber and instrumental works
  • Period: to

    Gustav Mahler

    • Austrian Jewish composer and conductor
    • Vienense, considered the heir of Mozart and Beethoven
    • seen as one of the greatest composers of the romantic era
    • was important in the transition from he romantic era to the modernism of the early 20th century
    • mostly known for his symphonies
    • made important expansions to symphonies and Lieder
    • Conductor in Europe and the USA
  • Period: to

    Claude Debussy

    • Born in France
    • Introduced musical impressionism Some compositions:
    • La mer
    • reverie
    • Children's corner
    • Prelude a lapses-midi d`un Faune
    • Petit suite
    • Estampes- L`isle Joyeuse
    • Two books of preludes for piano solo
    • Images (set of 3 pieces for piano solo)
  • Period: to

    Richard Strauss

    German composer
    Best known for his opera (Der Rosenkavalier, Elektra (1909) and Salome (1905) being the most famous), Lieder, specially his Vier Letzte Lieder; his symphonyc poems: Till Eulenspiegels, Don Juan, andAlso Spake Zarathustra
  • Period: to

    Erik Satie

    Became more widely known after his death
    Was a French composer
    Some of his pieces:
    - Trois Gymnopedies (1888) for piano solo
    - Je te Veux (1903)
  • Period: to

    Scott Joplin

    ragtime, 1 opera, marches and waltzes.
    - American composer that popularized ragtime
  • Period: to

    Aleksandr Skryabin

    Was a Russian composer who was influenced by chromaticism and impressionism. His music had complex original harmonic language and he was a virtuoso pianist
  • Period: to

    Arnold Schoenberg

    Austrian-American composer
    created 12 tone music (serialism)
  • Period: to

    Charles Ives

    one of the most innovative American composers of the 20th century
    harmonizes tunes in "wrong key"
    play on instruments that used quarter tones
    played familiar tunes 2 keys at once
    limitated atonality
  • Period: to

    Maurice Ravel

    French impressionist composer
    credited with the first impressionist piano piece
    One of his most famous pieces is Bolero, he also composed operas, ballets, orchestral and vocal works
    innovator in pianistic style
  • Period: to

    Pablo Picasso

    Picasso was an expressionist paintor
  • Period: to

    Igor Stravinsky

    Musical style changed often: Russian Period up to circa 1920; French period around 1910 while living in Paris; Neoclassical period circa 1920-54; and serialist (US) period, circa 1954-68 self-borrowed on his compositions, they were also rhythmically complex, essentially tonal but with sharp dissonance.
    One of his most important pieces is "The Rite of Spring" Style elements: Hypnotic Ostinatos; Polymeters 6/7, 7/8, 5/8; polychords - Eb G Bb Db with E G# B; pentatonic, Russian font elements
  • Period: to

    R. Nathaniel Dett

    helped found the National Association of Negro Musicians
  • Period: to

    Edgar Varese

    Composer of non-tonal music
    Worked with modern orchestration techniques in which, sometimes, the use of strings was minimized or excluded.
  • Period: to

    Edgard Varèse

    French American composer: percussion music
    a pioneer in the field of electronic music
  • Period: to

    Luigi Russolo

    Italian futurist painter, composer and builder of experimental musical instruments
  • Period: to

    Florence Price

    first black female to have a symphony performed by a major American orchestra
    first composition published at 11 years old
    career flourished in Chicago
  • Period: to

    Nadia Boulanger

    taught most American composers of the 20th century
  • Period: to

    Louis Dureu

    part of Les six
    Birn in Paris
    wrote songs for the French Resistance during WWII
    Wrote stage works, orchestral works, chamber music, piano works and film scores
  • Maximalism

    A style in which all musical elements are pushed to an extreme
    - music thick with motives and themes, often for orchestra
    - Extreme sizes of performance groups
  • Impressionism

    • Melody was not required to follow any traditional concept
    • All chords were treated as equal, and there were no chord progressions
    • Vague Harmonies
    • Parallel chords were common, as well as dissonances
    • Rhythmic vitality wasn't an aspect Use of pentatonic scales, whole tone, and other exotic scales
    Impressionism began as a French painting style, and it's literary equivalent is Symbolism
  • Ragtime

    Precursor to jazz
    highly syncopated rhythms and sectional forms
  • Period: to

    Vincent Van Gogh

    post-impressionist painter who had posthumous recognition.
  • Period: to

    Sergei Prokofoev

    Russian composer
    orchestral pieces, piano works, and film music
    seven symphonies
  • Opening of Carnegie Hall in NYC

  • Period: to

    Arthur Honegger

    born to Swiss parents, considered himself Swiss
    composed mostly on commission
    composed choral music, chamber music and 5 symphonies
    part of les six
  • Period: to

    Darius Milhaud

    Studied Debussy and rejected impressionism
    Friends with Satie and Tailleferre
    Traveld to Brazil in 1918 and that influenced his work, which was also influenced by American Jazz
    part of les six
  • Period: to

    Germaine Tailleferre

    Was a French composer, composed operas, ballets, film and television scores, orchestral works, choral music, songs, chamber music and piano works
    part of les six
  • Period: to

    Willian Grant Still

    First black American composer to have a symphony and opera performed by a major ensemble and to conduct a major symphony orchestra
  • First modern Olympic Games

  • Period: to

    Henry Cowell

    taught John cage
    supporter of Ives
    Invented chance music
    invented new techniques for playing piano
  • Period: to

    George Gershwin

    American composer: wrote classical, concert hall music infused with jazz and popular music
    Wrote for Broadway, film, and the concert hall
    Virtuoso pianist
    most famous works include:
    An American in Paris
    Rhapsody in Blue
    Porgy and Bess (opera)
    Lady, Be Good!
    Concerto in F (for piano and orchestra)
  • Period: to

    Georges Auric

    Was born in southern France, and studied composition with Satie teacher.
    composed songs, piano works, opera, ballets, chamber music and film music
    Was a music journalist
    part of les six
  • Period: to

    Francis Poulenc

    French composer part of les sis
    born in Paris to rich parents
    composed concertos, choral music, chamber music and piano works
  • Period: to

    Duke Ellington

    Edward Kennedy Ellington
    Composed hundreds of tunes, film scores, concertos, concert pieces, and works for the theater. Most famous for Jazz tunes
  • Period: to

    Aaron Copland

    composer, teacher, critic, conductor and sponsor of concerts
    compose in a variety of genres but not a huge amount of works
    mostly atonal
    mixed meters
  • End of the Victorian Era

    Death of England`s queen Victoria
  • The unanswered question

    orchestral work
    composed by Ives
    for three groups of instruments
    solo trumpet
    wind quartet
  • Period: to

    Salvador Dali

    Important Spanish painter known by his surrealism work.
  • Period: to

    Eliot Carter

    American composer, influential as teacher and composer
  • Period: to

    Olivier Messiaen

    Serialist French composer and Teacher
    known for incorporating bird songs into his music
  • Expressionism

    Germany and Austria
    High level of dissonance
    Extreme contrast in dynamics
    Extremes of pitch
    All notes are equal (no pitch or tonic to return to)
    Constantly changing texture
    No cadences (non-chord progression rules)
    Focused on completely freeing the music from tonality
  • Period: to


    • Return to the ideals of clarity and objectivity of the 18th century
    • combined structures from the past with modern harmony, tonality and timbres
  • Period: to


    A western visual art movement that borrowed non-Western subjects
  • Period: to

    Samuel Barber

    the most important American composer who kept romanticism alive during the 20th century
  • Creation of 12-tone technique by Schoenberg

  • The Tides of Manaunaun

    by Cowell
  • Period: to

    John Cage

    Innovated many compositional techniques
    helped change the definition of music to "Organized Sound"
  • Satie created a group called Les Nouveaux Jeunes

  • The art of noises

    creed or manifesto written by Russolo
  • Ballet The Rite of Spring

    • Stravinsky composed its music at the age of 31 (his music was ore rhythmically forceful than anything ever heard before) ; it was choreographed by Vaslar Nijinsky (radical and modernist) and its costumes were inspired by Pablo Picasso.
    • two parts
    • The ballet showed scenes of pagan Russian rituals, and its choreography required dancers to move in an awkward unconventional way "ugly and fat-footed"
    • percussive orchestra, irregular accents, polyrhythmic - chaotic Both music and story radical
  • Period: to

    World War I

  • Period: to


    An art movement of the European Avant-garde
    it was a movement of anti-art thinking
    reaction or artists and poets against the war and the bourgeois in Europe
  • Period: to

    Billie Holiday

    one of the leading female jazz singers
    She broke racial barriers by performing with white bands
  • Period: to

    Billy Strayhorn

  • Period: to

    Milton Babbitt

    American composer
    music theorist
    teacher interested in computer music
  • Russian Revolution

  • Period: to

    Leonard Bernstein

    TV personality
    composed musicals
  • Economic depression

  • Henri Collet coined the term les six in the French journal commedia

  • Blues

    The earliest recordings of Blues were made in the 1920s, but the style reaches back to the 1890s
    musical genre derived from Black American performance traditions that used “blues notes”or bent pitches
  • Period: to


    Focused on musical elements other than pitch
    - percussion ensembles benefited from this style
  • Period: to

    Iannis Xenakis

  • Period: to

    György Ligeti

    Hungarian composer
    Interested in clusters of sounds
    Active in electronic music and as a teacher
    developed a process of interweaving many separate strands into a complex polyphonic fabric
  • Period: to

    Pierre Boulez

    Important composer and conductor of the French "avant-garde"
    experimented with serialism
  • Period: to

    Luciano Berio

    leading modern Italian composer of the 20th century
  • Penicilin is first observed to be antibiotic

  • Philo Farnsworth demonstrates the first practical Eletronic television to press

  • Period: to

    Karlheinz Stockhausen

    Made inovations in eletronic music
    German composer
  • Period: to

    George Crumb

    American composer, best known for his anti-War sentiments during the Vietnam War
  • The electron microscope is invented by Ernst Ruska

  • FM radio is patented by inventor Edwin H. Armstrong

  • Period: to

    Henryk Górecki

    slow harmonic movement of minimalism
    neo-tonality (with the new consonance of major 2nds)
    strong emotional symbolism
    Before the 1970s he composed dissonant and serial music
    In the 1970s he began writing in a more consonant and ‘simple’ (minimalistic) style
  • Porgy and Bess

    Gershwin said he wrote it to be an American folk opera
  • Arvo Pärt

    Born in Estonia, a former republic of the Soviet Union (USSR)
    Composed in a variety of styles
    When he returned to his compositions in 1976, he started a new style
  • Peter and the Wolf

    Programmatic orchestral piece by Prokofiev
  • Philip Glass

    One of the pioneers of Minimalism.
    He is one of the most famous composers alive
    worked with Nadia Boulanger in Paris
    10 operas, lots of instrumental and vocal music, and soundtracks for films including, The Illusionist, The Secret Garden, The Truman Show, and Candyman
  • Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world

  • John Corigliano

    Corigliano became famous with the American public with his film score, The Red Violin (1997)
    He has also written orchestral music, concertos, wind ensemble music, stage works, and vocal music
  • Period: to

    WW II

  • Musique concrete

    use of natural sounds, and manipulate them to make music
    French concept
  • A Black Pierrot

    art song from a song cycle, echoes Schoenberg's "Pierrot Lunaire"
    text by Langston Hughes
    chromatic harmony
    blues influence
  • Appalachian Spring

    Ballet for Martha Graham who also danced the lead
    Ballet by Graham
  • The non-infectious viral vaccine is perfected by Dr. Jonas Salk and Thomas Francis

  • Period: to

    Paul Lansky

    American composer, theorist, professor at Princeton, and critic
    A pioneer in digital sound synthesis
    wrote a computer opera
  • The atomic bomb is first successfully developed by the US, the United Kingdom and Canada as a part of the Manhattan Project and swiftly deployed in August 1945 in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, effectively terminating World War II

  • John Adams

    American composer who successfully combined elements of New Romanticism and minimalism into a Post-minimalist style
  • Period: to

    Cold War

  • Aleatoric

    or aleatoric
    elements of the performance were up to chance
  • Indeterminate Music

    also used the element of chance, but its aleatory could also be seen on the composition process, along with the performance
  • Post 1950

    Computers used in music
    Electronic music predated this trend
    Tape music
    ondes Martenot
  • Electronische Musik

    Developed in Cologne, Germany, in the early 1950s
    A new studio was built exclusively for the creation of electronic music
  • Tape music

    electronically produced sounds
    Experiments began in 1951 at Columbia University
    musique concrete elements
  • First use of nuclear power to produce electricity for households in Arco, Idaho[394][395] 1952: The first thermonuclear weapon is developed by the United States of America

  • 4'33''

    three movements
    composed by john cage
    can be performed by any instrumentalist in any formation
  • Period: to

    Tod Machover

    One of the most creative minds in the world of music technology today
    Explores interactions between performers and computers
  • The first video tape recorder, a helical scan recorder, is invented by Norikazu Sawazaki

  • Period: to

    Vietnam War

  • Period: to

    Poème electronique

    contained electronic sounds and concrete sounds recorded onto multi-channel tape
  • West Side Story

  • The first personal computer used by one person and controlled by a keyboard, the IBM 610, is invented in 1957 by IBM.

  • The first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, is built and launched by the Soviet Union

  • Jennifer Higdon

    American composer
    Cold Mountain (2016), her 1st opera, was nominated for two Grammy Awards
  • Ancient Voices of Children

    Based on poems by Federico Garcia Lorca
    composed by Crumb
  • Einstein on the Beach

    An important modern opera that uses minimalism, among other things
    Very little singing, almost no plot
    The opera is built around a series of recurring images: A train, a trial, a spaceship, and a field
    The four acts of the opera are performed without intermission and are connected by a series of “Knee Plays”
  • Cantate Domino canticum novum

  • synthesizer

    had a significant influence on the film music industry
  • A CD-ROM contains data accessible to, but not writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback. The 1985 Yellow Book standard developed by Sony and Philips adapted the format to hold any form of binary data.

  • The first laptop computer is launched, the 8/16-bit Epson HX-20

  • MIDI

    Musical Instrument Digital Interface
    Enables computer interactions with synthesizers and sequences
  • Short Ride in a Fast Machine

    Orchestral work, transcribed for band
  • Nixon in China

    Minimalist Opera
  • Minimalism

    A style of music based on repetitive melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic patterns with few or slowly changing variations

    La Monte Young
    Steve Reich
    Philip Glass
    John Adams
    Terry Riley
  • First generation of Bluetooth is developed by Ericsson Mobile. A form of data communication on short distances between electronic devices

  • DVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions.

  • blue cathedral

    Higdon’s blue cathedral is an orchestral tone poem written to commemorate the anniversary of the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia
  • Doctor Atomic

    The opera is about the creation of the atomic bomb by a team of scientists
    by Adam