SOCRATESOne of the greatest paradoxes that helped his students explore was whether weakness of will – doing wrong when you genuinely knew what was right – truly existed. He seemed to think otherwise: people only did wrong when at the moment the perceived benefits seemed to outweigh the costs. Hence, the development of personal ethics is mastering what he called “the art of measurement,” correcting the distortions that skew one’s analyses of benefit and cost.
PLATOEthics is referred to as a concern to act rightly and live a good life. Plato’s main concern is to challenge the views most people have about goodness, for it is here that they go disastrously wrong in trying to live happy lives. Most people think that virtue is a minor
good, or even an impediment to living a happy life. Plato considers this to be incorrect; it is only by being virtuous that we can hope to be happy.
ARISTOTLEAristotle argued that virtues are good habits that we acquire, that regulate our emotions. Example, in response to a natural feeling of fear, one should develop the virtue of courage, which allows a person to be firm when facing danger or fear. Also he further argued that most virtues fall at a mean between extreme character traits. For instance, if one lacks courage, he will develop the disposition of cowardice; if one has too much courage, he will develop the disposition of rashness.
MORAL POSITIVISMHobbes’ moral positivism anticipates the chaotic outcome if laws are not abided. We all believe that the purpose of the government is to protect the rights of its people, preserve justice and enforce the laws. It is a must for every nation to have someone who would manage and administer them. Hence, the creation of laws and the obedience of its subjects are important in the order and maintenance of peace in countries (Roa, 2007).
UTILITARIANISMThe utilitarian ethics is best explained by the maxim, “Do whatever produces the greatest good for the greatest number.” The theory argues that what makes an act right is its consequences and not the motive of the action. The principle of Utilitarianism is used in Cost-Benefit Analysis, for example, more benefit, less cost, is a good action. It can also be used in the resolution of LaborManagement conflicts.