Vietnam sm07

The Vietnam War by Andrea Lamper

By lampera
  • Geneva Accords

    Geneva Accords
    The Geneva Conference took place in Geneva, Switzerland. The Soviet Union, the U.S, France, the U.K, and Representatives of China were all major participants in the meeting. They were to talk of peace in Indochina. For restoring this peace the Geneva Acoords were made. Vietnam was to be split into two areas, the north and south, both to be ruled by seperate leaders. The South being the State of Vietnam and the North being the Viet Minh group.
  • Geneva Accords Significance

    Geneva Accords Significance
    1946 nationalist and communist movements led to the 1st Indochina War. This struggle between the French and the Viet Minh was to be part of the Cold War in 1950. Later Viet Minh retreated from many positions moving into South Vietnam, while fighting French forces. These French Union forces left their positions and did as the agreement stated, "facilitating the cessation of hostilities between the Vietnamese and those that had supported the French." These accords were a huge step forward.
  • Students for a Democratic Society

    Students for a Democratic Society
    This society was one of the results of the civil rights movement. This society was frist presented in 1960 up until their last meeting in 1969. In 1962 the Port Huron Statement was written. This was one of the first documentations to hit the U.S with impact by the SDS. This began as a small community of people, but quickly grew to a whole political movement within the U.S. This movement of people was also referred to as the New Left, who were people pushing for changes in society and government.
  • Students for a Democratic Society Significance

    Students for a Democratic Society Significance
    This was the one group that could define the New Left movement. No other group or movement has been able to compare to this society on such a global scale as this one had. They were radical and effective. They were committed and took action. Through thick and thin, up until the split in 1969, this society gave the anti-war and civil rights movement groups a voice and influence on the government during this time.
  • Buddist Protests

    Buddist Protests
    The image above shows the public immolation of a Buddist under the rule of President Ngo Dinh Diem. This is one of many during a time where Buddists were oppressed, despite U.S. and Buddist requests and protests. This crisis was led mainly by the Monks who were repressed during a time of resistance to South Vietnam and its leader.
  • Buddist Protests Significance

    Buddist Protests Significance
    After these protests in November 1963, a coup was planned. The United States turned a blind eye to the occurance and watched as the President and brother were captured and executed by people of the Republic of Vietnam. Many disagreed with his actions towards the protests from religious and political groups. This gave the French Government an advantage and control over the spread of communism in Vietnam.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    The U.S came to this resolution after the Gulf of Tonkin incident. This incident happened in the first year of Johnson's presidency. Although the U.S was at the Geneva Conference, we never joined due to the restrictions it held. Their was a ceasefire agreement in the conference. The Gulf of Tonkin saw an incident where North Vietnamese torpedo boats began with the attack of USS Maddox. This resolution gave the Presdient right to do what he felt was necessary to defend us and our allies.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Signifiance

    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution  Signifiance
    This Resolution seemed to be significant because this was a response to the Tonkin incident, which went right against all agreements for temporary ceasefire between French and Vietnamese forces. This showed that the battle was not soon over. Although the U.S never signed the Geneva Accords, this resolution gave the President great amounts of power to do as pleased in Vietnam without the official "declaration" of war. This was beneficial to the French because of the anti-communist actions.
  • Free Speech Movement

    Free Speech Movement
    Or the FSM, taking place from 1964 to 1965 was a student protest, which took place mainly in the Universities of Berkeley and California. Mario Savio and Bettina Aptheker were essential student protesters in the movement. These campus's were pushing for the right to free speech and academic freedoms to which they felt entitled.
  • Free Speech Movement Significance

    Free Speech Movement Significance
    Students during this time were saying that their rights were being challenged. Over 700 students were arrested and some even publicly beaten because they refused to comply with police and the university. This event was significant because when the university officials began to let up on the students, new rules were presented, which ultimatly led to the Vietnam Day Committee. This was the initial take off of the anti-war movement. This gave anti-war protestors inspiration from all over.
  • Teach-in Movement Significance

    Teach-in Movement Significance
    This event was significant because it gave opposers a time to voice their opinions. They didn't feel alone in the protest. These events began to become more anti-war speeches than just a lesson on Vietnam. The more people knew, the more they wanted out of the war. From the FSM to the teach-ins, students and enlightened people began to show all opposition to this war. This destroyed alot of support towards the government. Many began to rebel in any way they could.
  • Teach-in Movement

    Teach-in Movement
    This first started in March of 1965 in the University of Michigan. Over 60 teachers began to run classes after hours to educate students on the issues in Vietnam. These classes ended up containing several thousand people. This was something bigger than any of the protestors thought possible. These teach-ins became more and more popular as they began to ignite anti-war protestors and enlightened students all over the U.S.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    2 March 1965 until 2 November 1968, during the time of the Vietnam War, was a period that consisted of South Vietnam forces and U.S forces air striking and bombing the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam, communist.) This event was considered a failure for the U.S and allied forces. They tried to contain communism without ground forces, destroy Northern Vietnam land and transportation, and liven the forces in the Republic of Vietnam.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder Significance

    Operation Rolling Thunder Significance
    This event was a failure for the U.S because many restraints were forced on us from the Cold War and communist forces helping North Vietnam were strong. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam over the years developed very effective weapons that our air forces were not prepared to fight off. This was significant in the fact that we saw how adaptable and prepared the Northern Vietnamese forces were. We started to grasp how hard this war would be to win as we tried to gain the upper hand.
  • Tet Offensive Significance

    Tet Offensive Significance
    This event was a suprise attack against anti-communist forces in South Vietnam. 36 of 44 provincial capitals were attacked including a hundred towns. Their were many casualties, mostly on the communist side. The suprise was the largest offensive event during the war up until that time. The U.S and South Vietnam, despite shock, claimed this a victory. As soldiers and the U.S gov't never thought this type of massive attack possible, it opened our eyes to their capability.
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    These were stated to be suprise attacks against U.S and Southern Vietnamese forces. During this time no attacks were expected to happen. The enemy wanted the element of suprise. "Tet Lunar New Year celebrations. Both North and South Vietnam announced on national radio broadcasts that there would be a two-day cease-fire during the holiday." This is when the enemy attacked and stunned the anti-communist forces. We did not think that this attack was possible. Most forces were beaten by the U.S.
  • My Lai Massacre

    My Lai Massacre
    This was a massacre in the Vietnam War, where 347 to 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam were mutilated, raped, and/or killed after beaten. Out of al the U.S men that took part, 26 men were arrested, but only Second Lieutenant William Calley was convicted. This man did not even serve his full sentence. This took place specifically in Son My village. When anti-war activists and U.S people on the homefront heard of this brutality, they were disgusted.
  • My Lai Massacre Significance

    My Lai Massacre Significance
    In 1969 when this was brought to the public's attention, anti-war groups and opposition activists were enraged by the actions of the U.S. They were wondering why a massacre was necessary in a war that was not even ours to fight. Servicemen who publicly opposed and tried to stop the occurence were frowned upon by military forces, but were repected by the general public. At this time we can see how opposition was even more prominent towards the government and their actions.
  • Columbia University Protest

    Columbia University Protest
    These protests were done in the year 1968. Students began to realize how their own schools were in some way supporting the war effort as they heard of the segregatory gymnasium being constructed on campus. As students wanted to show their opposition, they began to occupy buildings on campus. By doing so they were violently removed by the NYCPD because of their refusal to leave. "Columbia disaffiliated from the IDA and scrapped the plans for the controversial gym" were two changes from the event.
  • Columbia University Protest Significance

    Columbia University Protest Significance
    These 1968 protests for opposition built up the action for peace. They wanted the war to end and to bring our troops home. These violent protests led to violent opposition groups in the homefront. In NYC a group called the Black Panther Party played a huge part in the peace movement as a violent active force. They were becoming more extreme because the government was becoming more violent with them. At this time the government saw strong opposition and hatred by their own country.
  • Vietnamization

    President Nixon developed a new policy called Vietnamization in response to the Tet Offensive. Nixon did not want to lose the war, but he also did not want the anti-war effort by activists to worsen. Thus, he began to pull U.S troops out of Vietnam, but only to replace them with Southern Vietnamese troops. He began to train them, so they could be prepared for another attack by the Viet Cong. As mistrust by the American people towards their government hightened, Nixon began to comfort his people.
  • Vietnamization Significance

    Vietnamization Significance
    Nixon began to assure his people that the war was almost "de-Americanized" as the Southern Vietnam forces took over. Nixon wanted to strengthen Vietnamese forces while extending the pacification program in South Vietnam. Both needed to be done, but they would not be as easy to attain. Relations with the Soviet Union and China were more important than arming South Vietnam. This seemed to be part of the end of the war, and hopes began to rise.
  • Invasion of Cambodia

    Invasion of Cambodia
    President Nixon wanted to destroy threats over the neutral Cambodian territory line. Nixon while pushing towards Vietnamization started a series of 13 military operations in eastern Cambodia by the U.S and Southern Vietnamese forces. People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam were the forces we wanted to destroy. Even though it is a controversy today, President Nixon proclaimed the incursion to be "the most successful military operation over all."
  • Invasion of Cambodia Significance

    Invasion of Cambodia Significance
    At this time the U.S public was outraged to think that we had invaded another country without any real reason for doing so. Student protests like the one at Kent State were done partially in response to this event. It was the spread of war which the public did not want. Though half of the country approved Nixon's actions and blamed the students for their unlawful doings, Nixon said it was an effective course of action as he was trying to go along with Vietnamization.
  • Kent State Protest

    Kent State Protest
    This was known as the May 4 Massacre. This happened in the city of Kent, Ohio 11 days prior to the Jackson State killings. The people within this protest were unarmed civilians. Students and innocent people just looking on and walking by were the ones shot down. Four students were shot and nine others were injured. They were protesting against the war and the Cambodian invasion by the U.S. "The guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds."
  • Kent State Protest Significance

    Kent State Protest Significance
    Due to this event and the student strikes of the 1970's a multitude of universities and schools closed to grieve the losses of such innocent people. The public saw this shooting as another strike against the government. During the war this gave peace activists even more of a reason to keep pursuing their goals towards unity and the end of the war. The public was in shock at such extreme measures and so were students. Sadly this was only the beginning of the violence.
  • Jackson State Protest

    Jackson State Protest
    This was a protest held at Jackson State College on May 14th, 1970. In response to the Invasion of Cambodia and the many wrong-doings in Vietnam students protested against the war effort. 11 days after the Kent State shootings, two students were killed in these shootings after midnight. City and state police opened fire while killing two, 12 were injured. African American students gathered on Lynch Street, with fires blazing and rocks being thrown. The police said they must take action.
  • Jackson State Protest Significance

    Jackson State Protest Significance
    In response to shooting like this one and the Vietnam war that we did not even belong in to begin with, students only voicing their opposition were shot. Two killed and many injured. Police said they must take action because they of the students provoking and violent action. Although shots were only fired by police, none by the protestors. The Kent shooting caught public attention, but this shooting was shocking. Two shootings within 11 days of eachother. The gov't would be looked down upon.
  • Paris Peace Accords

    Paris Peace Accords
    The Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam was signed by the U.S, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam on January 27th, 1973. It was never approved by the U.S Senate. These accords were set up to end U.S military force in the war, to temporarily stop the fight between the north and south vietnamese people, and to somehow reach peace between all nations involved. "The United States did not keep its promise to help us fight for freedom." said South Vietnamese leader.
  • Paris Peace Accords Significance

    Paris Peace Accords Significance
    This event was utterly significant due to the fact that the war was almost over. The public saw an end to this war and all U.S involvment. They could see their troops coming home and finally getting out of a country they had not even belonged in to begin with. "The North Vietnamese entered Saigon on April 30. Schlesinger had announced early in the morning of 29 April 1975 the evacuation from Saigon by helicopter of the last U.S. diplomatic, military, and civilian personnel." This was the end.
  • Fall of South Vietnam

    Fall of South Vietnam
    The Fall of Saigon was the single event that ended the Vietnam war. The People's Army of Vietnam took over major cities in South Vietnam and renamed a few of these places in honor of communist leaders who fought for the North. This was the unification of Southern and Northern Vietnam. Vietnam would again become communist. It was as if the U.S was never there. All forces other than those of the Northern regime were evacuated by air, which led to largest helicopter evacuation in history thus far.
  • Fall of South Vietnam Significance

    Fall of South Vietnam Significance
    This fall at Saigon acted as the ending point of the Vietnam war, including all military involvment. North and south would again become one under a communist society. The public of the U.S had been waiting for this day to come for years. They knew Vietnamization was a tactic to remove us, but his defeat ended it faster than any policy could have. Air lift was quick and effective. As the war ended, society in Vietnam began to regulate again and become somewhat stable.