Vietnam History 1945-89

  • Famine

    Famine
    A famine caused by ruthless Japanese occupation, exploitation, and very poor weather cost two million Vietnamese lives. But due to a relief effort by Hồ Chí Minh in the northern part of the country led to massive support for him in the coming conflicts.
  • Independence Declared

    Independence Declared
    In a speech in Hanoi with Supreme Advisor Bảo Đại, Hồ Chí Minh declared independence from France, used part of America's Declaration of independence saying, "We hold the truth that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Ho was a communist guerilla leader who fought Japanese.
    Japan also surrendered to the Allies onboard the USS Missouri.
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  • The French Return In Force

    The French Return In Force
    After fighting started in Haiphong the French started a naval bombardment that killed somewhere between 2,000 and 6,000 people. Fighting soon followed in nearby Hanoi and Hồ Chí Minh was forced out into the countryside where guerrilla warfare increased and started an eight year conflict.
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  • Turning Point

    Turning Point
    Vietnamese General Võ Nguyên Giáp starts small offensives and continues to grind away at the American supplied French forces. While in France the war is unpopular, especially after the French Foreign Legion suffered a huge defeat at Lang Son where over half were killed or wounded and lots of material was also lost. It was turning point as more French citizens were very much against the war calling it "dirty war" (la sale guerre).
    Phot Source: www.cuocsongviet.com.vn
  • Siege & Battle of Điện Biên Phủ

    Siege & Battle of Điện Biên Phủ
    The start of the end of the French Indochina War as the French force of about 20,000 was surrounded by about 50,000 Vietnamese. In the Siege of Điện Biên Phủ and following battle of Điện Biên Phủ the French were overrun and crushed. The Frence defeat ended their rule and influence in the region permanenetly.
    Photo Source: en.wikipedia.org
  • The Geneva Accords

    The Geneva Accords
    The French agree to abandon Southeast Asia and French Indochina is dissolved and are seperated into several different nations; Nations created are Laos, Cambodia, along with a divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel. There is North Vietnam controlled by Communists and a South Vietnam backed by the West. With the accords signed the first Indochina War ends.
    Photo Source: www.historycentral.com
  • Ngô Đình Diệm comes to power in the South

    Ngô Đình Diệm comes to power in the South
    In a referendum corrupt Ngô Đình Diệm wins with massive fraud the referendum with 98% of the vote and then cancels the 1956 unifying election of Vietnam. This starts a massive corrupt anti communist regime in the south that with American support would escalate the sitution into a new war in Vietnam.
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  • Vietnam War Begins

    Vietnam War Begins
    With Ngô Đình Diệm's power grab the Viet Cong begin raiding the south and another war starts that would last for almost 20 years that would involve a great many world powers and other nations with direct support or material support.
    Photo Source: www.us-history.com
  • North Vietnam invades Laos

    North Vietnam invades Laos
    Much of what was invaded would be used to supply continued North Vietnamese attacks into the south and support the Viet Cong. The Hồ Chí Minh Trail would be created and it would run from North Vietnam into Laos through Cambodia and into South Vietnam for the entire Vietnam War.
    Photo Source: en.wikipedia.org
  • Ngô Đình Diệm Assassinated

    Ngô Đình Diệm  Assassinated
    After several coup and assassination attempts the very corrupt Ngô Đình Diệm along with his brother were overthrown and assassinated. The result would be numerous of very short lived governments for the next couple of years along with weak leadership and continued corruption.
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  • John F. Kennedy Assassinated, LBJ becomes President

    John F. Kennedy Assassinated, LBJ becomes President
    US President John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, TX. Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President and reverses JFK's policy of disengagement from Vietnam.
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  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    After two very murky and alleged attacks by North Vietnamese forces on two different US Destroyers the US Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and signed by President Johnson that authorized and gave the President the power to conduct military operations in Southeast Asia without having to declare war.
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  • US Marines Arrive

    US Marines Arrive
    In need of better and closer bases for the US Air Force the US Marines arrive and not only expand a base but secure it for larger use for the US Air Force.This move brought Hồ Chí Minh to say, " if the Americans want to make war for twenty years then we shall make war for twenty years. If they want to make peace, we shall make peace and invite them to afternoon tea."
    By the end of 1965 there would be over 200,000.
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  • Nguyễn Văn Thiệu becomes South Vietnam's President

    Nguyễn Văn Thiệu becomes South Vietnam's President
    Nguyễn Văn Thiệu becomes South Vietnam's President and stabolizes a very bad situtation as best he can but he is unable to change and become very corrupt as time went on.
    Photo Source: phunutoday.vn
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    Violating an annual agreement between the North and South Vietnamese the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Amry launch a surprise attack upon numerous areas of South Vietnam and supporting US, Australian, New Zealand, and South Korean forces.
    Photo Source: ehistory.osu.edu
    There would be three phases of the offensive and after it was over the US people and media who thought victory was in sight would turn against the war and President LBJ would not seek re-election.
  • Richard Nixon becomes President

    Richard Nixon becomes President
    Richard Nixon becomes 37th President of the United States and not only changes course in the war but in how its being conducted.
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  • Hồ Chí Minh Dies

    Hồ Chí Minh Dies
    Hồ Chí Minh dies. He never lived to see a unified nation but his final wishes would eventually come true. His remains like so many other prior Communist leaders is on display to his people.
    Photo Source: nguyenvantuan.net
  • Vietnamization Beings

    Vietnamization Beings
    This was the real start where US forces pulled back, trained the South Vietnamese to take up front line positions. This cut US loses by half from 1969. However the war would be expanded into Cambodia.
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  • Paris Peace Accords Signed

    Paris Peace Accords Signed
    The Paris Peace Accords are signed after massive unrestricted bombing of North Vietnam's infrastructure that leveled the area the norther part of the nation.
    The agreement ended America's involvement and America's longest war to that time.
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  • Nixon Resigns

    Nixon Resigns
    President Nixon first US President to resign from office in disgrace due to the Watergate scandal. This would seal South Vietnam's fate. A major side effect of this was due to the scandal South Vietnam would be left to fend for itself as America and President Ford were paralized politically from helping.
    Photo Source: www.democraticunderground.com
  • Begining of the end of South Vietnam

    Begining of the end of South Vietnam
    North Vietnam launches a limited offensive and within a month takes the entire Phuoc Long province. This emboldens them to do more actions after the US Congress refuses to allow support for South Vietnam.
    Photo Source: www.evi.com
  • Hồ Chí Minh Campaign

    Hồ Chí Minh Campaign
    With the fall of Phuoc Long Province and no US response the offensive grew and continued into the spring of 1975. Within a matter of weeks all South Vietnamese opposition would melt and the NVA would be at the gates of Saigon.
    Photo Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Xuan_Loc
  • Fall of Saigon and end of Vietnam War

    Fall of Saigon and end of Vietnam War
    As the rout of the South Vietnamese was completed with the Fall of the capital Saigon. With its fall the war was over.What would follow would be many years of misery executions, and re-education camps for several 100,000.
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  • Saigon Renamed

    Saigon Renamed
    Saigon as was renamed Ho Chi Minh City as apart of the re-organization of the country as it was declared the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
    Photo Source: http://www.annamtravel.com/tour/Day-Trips/A-Glimpse-of-Saigon.html
  • Invasion of Cambodia

    Invasion of Cambodia
    After numerous skirmishes the Vietnamese had enough and invaded Cambodia and overthrew the extremely oppressive communist regime of Pol Pot, who murdered one-sixth of the entire population of Cambodia.
    The invasion would result in a long involvement in Cambodia and would isolate Vietnam further with its neighbors and the rest of the world.
    Photo Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambodian%E2%80%93Vietnamese_War
  • China invades Vietnam

    China invades Vietnam
    Coming to Cambodia's rescue the Chinese invaded northern Vietnam. After a month of very bloody fighting the Chinese would leave with a bloody nose but not before they scortched earth the entire area north and west of Hanoi.
    Photo Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VietnamChina1979.png
  • Old Guard Leadership Replaced

    Old Guard Leadership Replaced
    At the Sixth National Congress there was a mass change made to the ruling body of the country due to a massive let down in economic development and lack of economic progress in the country. Nguyen Van Linh became the New General Secretary of the party and implemented a series of Free Market reforms. It changed the nation from a planned economy to a socialist market economy.
    Photo Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Picture_of_Nguyen_Van_Linh.jpeg