Cold war, vietnam, civil rights

Time Line Project: A Period of Transition

By rslot19
  • The Truman Doctrine

    The Truman Doctrine
    Truman declared it is the US's responsibility to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure. This is important because the US gave economic support to Turkey and Greece. This is significant to the Cold War because it was an attempt to contain Communism by luring in Soviet satellite states.
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    This is significant because the Soviets blockaded West Berlin, and the allies stuck there would starve. The airlift got them supplies despite the Soivet blockade, and this led to the creation of NATO.
  • French Indochina War (1949-1954)

    French Indochina War (1949-1954)
    Ho Chi Minh had established an independent Vietnamese Republic in North Vietnam during World War II. The French wanted this territory, and for five years a guerilla war took place, with the US backing the French and USSR backing the Vietminh. This part of the war ended with the Geneva Conference.
  • NATO created

    NATO created
    With the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty, NATO was created. This was key in uniting the Western European powers and US, and combating the Soviet Union's power. This eventually led to the USSR creating the Warsaw Pact with their allies.
  • Soviet Union successfully detonates their first atomic bomb

    Soviet Union successfully detonates their first atomic bomb
    The biggest advantage the US had in their rivalry with the Soviets was the atomic bomb. The US thought they still had at least 5-10 years before the Soviets would successfully create and detonate an atomic bomb. This event really upped the ante in the earlt Cold War years.
  • McCarran Internal Security Act

    McCarran Internal Security Act
    This was a key Cold War event because it required Communists in America to register with the attorney general. It was an important piece of legislation passed due to the Red Scare, as a result of the Cold War.
  • Battle of Dien Bien Phu

    Battle of Dien Bien Phu
    This was a key loss for the French in their wasr, and proved to be the decisive battle. The vietminh win in this case led to the Geneva Conference and agreement to split Vietnam into two separate areas.
  • Brown v. Board of Education court ruling

    Brown v. Board of Education court ruling
    This monumental ruling declared segregation was unconstitutional, and overruled the Plessy v. Ferguson court ruling. This was one of the key events in starting the civil rights movement in America. "Separate but equal" was no longer backed by the court.
  • Geneva Conference

    Geneva Conference
    This creates a ceasefire between the French and Vietminh, and created a communist North Vietnam and a democratic South Vietnam. This is similar to how Korea split into North and South, however the US's involvement would be much more intense in Vietnam.
  • Murder of Emmitt Till

    Murder of Emmitt Till
    After allegedly flirting with a white woman, 14-year-old Emmitt Till was kidnapped, murdered, and dumped into the Tallahatchie River. This was significant because it immediately showed how unwilling whites were to the change in African-American rights, and served as motivatoin for many civil rights organizations.
  • Rosa Parks refuses to get off bus

    Rosa Parks refuses to get off bus
    At the front of the colored section of a public bus, Rosa Parks was the first to stand up, and stay seated on the bus, refusing to give up her seat for a white person. She was arrested, and immediately a boycott of buses was implemented, and proved successful as they were desegregated in 1956.
  • Eisenhower Doctrine

    Eisenhower Doctrine
    This was basically an extension of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan, as it persuaded countries to request US financial aid and/or military assisstance. This was another attempt to combat Soviet sphere of influence and help out nations that would otherwise fall to communism.
  • "Little Rock Nine" Integration

    "Little Rock Nine" Integration
    While integrating schools was passed through the Supreme Court, the incident in Little Rock, Arkansas proved that integration was not going to be so easy. Governor Faubus refused to integrate Central High School, so Eisenhower forcefully integrated it using the military. This was very significant, showing integratino was easier said than done.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

    Civil Rights Act of 1957
    With the first civil rights legislation since Reconstruction, this act got rid of the civil war amendments. The filibuster prolonged the passage of the act. Although this act was eventually passed, it was not enforced, and was mostly ineffective. Still, it was a step in the right direction as it set up future civil rights acts.
  • Sputnik I Launched

    Sputnik I Launched
    The back and forth between the Soviets and US continued during the Space Race. The Soviets showed their initial superiority with the launch of Sputnik, the first orbiting satellite in history.
  • U-2 Incident

    U-2 Incident
    After not agreeing to allow cooperative surveillance, the Soviet Union shot down an illegally flying American U-2 reconaissance plane. This is important because it could have ended the Cold War if the Soviets chose to retaliate, and it increased tension between the two nations.
  • National Liberation Front created

    National Liberation Front created
    The NLF, commonly referred to as the Vietcong, were significant because they were the primary enemy for the US during the Vietnam war. Their brutal, relentless forms of fighting proved to be a tough opposition to the best military power in the world.
  • Bay Of Pigs

    Bay Of Pigs
    In order to try to deter communism in Cuba, the US wanted to stage a coup to remove Fidel Castro from power. The US trained Cuban exiles and the plan was put into action starting April 10. After the invasion failed miserably, the US was found out as being involved, and tensions between the US, Cuba and Soviet Union increased.
  • Sit-In Movement/Freedom Rides

    Sit-In Movement/Freedom Rides
    Students begin taking long bus trips and sitting in restaurants, refusing to get up and taking all of the consequences. Over 1,000 blacks and whites volunteered in these events which were promoted by CORE and SNCC.
  • Berlin Wall construction begins

    Berlin Wall construction begins
    A key symbol, the "Iron Curtain" divided East and West for 28 years. This wall showed how truely isolated and opposed the Soviets were. The Soviet Union used the wall as a last resort to keep themselves isolated and away from their many enemies that surrounded them.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    One of the most key events during the Cold War, this crisis brought the US and USSR to the brink of war after Soviet missiles were found in Cuba. The Soviet Union was immediately threatened with total war, and the missiles were withdrawn, and the war remained cold.
  • Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
    This treaty was signed by the US, UK, and USSR to end nuclear testing. After the close call during the Cuban Missile Crisis, this treaty was important in establishing an agreement banning nuclear testing in the atmosphere, space, and underwater.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    Over 200,000 people gathered to march to the Lincoln Memorial in Washington to listen to civil rights spokespeople and show approval in the movement. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. This is often viewed as one of the most significant and memorable events during the movement.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The second of the civil rights acts, this one attempted to prohibit any discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin. It gave all citizens the right to enter public places such as libraries, parks, washrooms, and theaters. It was a significant step towards public integration of African Americans.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Incident

    Gulf of Tonkin Incident
    On this date, the North Vietnamese attacked (supposedly) two US destroyers that were stationed in international waters. This is one of the most significant events since it pushed the US into the Vietnam War.
  • Gulf Of Tonkin Resolution

    Gulf Of Tonkin Resolution
    In response to the Gulf of Tonkin incident where two US detroyers were attacked, Congress passed this resolution officially getting the US involved in the war. This leads to the US sending troops over within six months.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    This act made it illegal to refuse the right to vote based on race, and banned literacy tests for voting registration. This made it easier for Southern blacks to register to vote. This act was not entirely successful, but it was another big step in racial equality.
  • Black Panthers created

    Black Panthers created
    Huey Newton and Bobby Seale created this violent civil rights group in response to violence going on in America. After the assassinations of key figures such as Malcolm X and President Kennedy, these individuals retaliated by creating the first major militant group to combat inequality.
  • The Tet Offensive

    The Tet Offensive
    Trying to coincide with the Vietnamese New Year celebration to catch the enemies off guard, the Vietcong started a wide-spread offensive, which was widely televised in America. This is one of the most significant events, as many Americans began to wonder and argue if we should really be in Vietnam.
  • Mai Lai Massacre

    Mai Lai Massacre
    The US led their forces into South Vietnam and mass murdered unarmed men children and women. This was kept secret from the American public until a year later. This shows not only the frustration, but the instablity of the US when they were put under extreme pressure.
  • Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
    At the young age of 39, Martin Luther King Jr, one of the most prominent civil rights activists, is shot and killed. This led to violence, as it was one of the many assassinations of key figures in the movement.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968

    Civil Rights Act of 1968
    This was yet another Civil Rights Act that prohibited discrimination in housing. Any discriminatino in the sale, rent, targeting, or financing in housing was no longer allowed. This gave blacks even more rights and continued the civil rights movement headway.
  • War into Cambodia

    War into Cambodia
    Despite government restrictions, President Nixon authorizes operation menu, which was the bombing of North Vietnamese and Vietcong bases in Cambodia. The American public did not know of the US involvement in Cambodia. This is significant because the US continued to try everything they could to win, but to no avail,
  • Pentagon Papers

    Pentagon Papers
    On this date, a portion of the Pentagon Papers were published in the New York Times. These papers showed the truth behind what the American presidents were really doing in Vietnam, and what they were concealing from the American public.
  • Final US troops withdrawn

    Final US troops withdrawn
    With the failure of the US military in Vietnam, the last of the US soldiers were removed, and the US was officially out of combat in the Vietnam War. This is the first major war that the US failed to win, and it was broadcasted all over the country on TV.
  • Vietcong launch massive assault

    Vietcong launch massive assault
    After the last US troops are withdrawn, the Vietcong launch their huge attack, and take South Vietnam by force. The country is united a year later as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Despite all of the US's and South Vietnamese efforts, Vietnam fell to communism and the US;s policy of containment failed, for once.