Popart

1960s Timeline Project

  • Establishing the Termination Policy

    Establishing the Termination Policy
    The process of "termination" began during the Eisenhower administration. The ultimate goal of termination was to grant all Native Americans the rights and privileges equal to ordinary American citizenship. This was to encourage Native Americans to become a part of the society beyond their fixed reservations. However this policy didn't work out as many had hoped. Many Native Americans were stricken with severe poverty due to the sudden change in social status.
  • The Geneva Conference

    The Geneva Conference
    In the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and the People's Republic of China, among other nations, all gathered as participants in the 3-month conference to possibly reunify Vietnam and restore peace in Indochina. During this conference, they produced a set of documents called the Geneva Accords, which declared Vietnam be divided into two sections, North Vietnam to be ruled by the Viet Minh, and South Vietnam to be ruled by the state of Vietnam.
  • Dien Bien Phu surrenders

    Dien Bien Phu surrenders
    After a long time of France assisting Indochina in fighting against the threat of communism, France's Vietnamese station at Dien Bien Phu surrendered in their efforts to make amends with China. The French may have had a chance of gaining some success if American soldiers were to assist them, however, President Eisenhower gave them orders to avoid the communist area.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    The Brown vs. Board of Education case once handled the effects of graduate schools, but now in the mid-50s, they've brought it back to possibly make an effort to desegregate elementary and high schools. Though the leaders of the NAACP weren't necessarily successful in the local courts, their case grew enough influence to take on the Supreme Court, as studies suddenly showed that being secregated in school changes their self-esteem. Many schools desegregated that year..
  • Creation of pop art

    Creation of pop art
    The creation of pop art was a art movement emerging in the mid-1950s. The whole idea of pop art is it addresses a certain topic with aspects, such as intense color, that don't ultimately relate to said topic; hense the name "pop" art. Though it may be rather difficult to comprehend, the artists' point of including this in the piece is to emphasize the topic to which he's describing; often times the issues arising in that culture. It became very popular in the sixies during the counterculture.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    The Montgomery Bus Boycott The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a widespread political and social protest against the segregation in the public transit system. On the buses, blacks are to generally sit in the rear of the bus, and whites sit in the front. If a black is sitting in a seat where a white wishes to sit, the black must sit towards the back. The boycott was mainly led my MLK Jr. and Ralph Abernathy.
  • Litte Rock Nine

    Litte Rock Nine
    Little Rock Nine In the Supreme Court case "Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, KS", it was declared that all segregated schools are unconstitutional, and the NAACP registered nine black students to Central High School, a previously white-only school. On 4 Sept, these students were banned from entering the school in protest of integration. President Eisenhower eventually had US troops force an end to the protest.
  • Rise of the Counterculture

    Rise of the Counterculture
    The Counterculture was a widespread movement throughout the western world, mainly including the United States and the United Kingdom, in response to the Vietnam conflict and the corrupt state of civl rights. As the movement progressed, people changed society, specifically the racial conflicts, women's rights, sexuality, and overall authority, all out of peace and love for their culture.
  • Sit-In Movement

    Sit-In Movement
    The Fellowship of Reconciliation and the Congress Of Racial Equality organized protests mainly in restaurants and taverns, where black citizens would sit in "white-only" designated bars, leaving the whites with no place to sit. Despite the many convicted arrests made during these protests, these sit-ins were symbolically a non-violent form of protest to end segregation in its most pointless areas (meaning everywhere).
  • Election of 1960

    Election of 1960
    John F. Kennedy's campaign recieved more attention than that of Richard Nixon, due to his young appearance and good speaking skills. In explaining his "New Frontier" campaign, JFK declares, "There are new frontiers for America to conquer, not frontiers on a map, but of the mind, the will, and the spirit of man. The election was one of the closest in US History, with less than 120,000 votes separating the candidates.
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    The Bay of Pigs Invasion was an unsuccessful military tactic led mainly by the Central Intelligence Agency. It was their intention to overthrow the leftist government of Fidel Castro in Cuba. Formerly an ally of the United States until Castro took control, Cuba was suspected by the US of containing possibly nuclear missiles aimed at them, to which Kennedy administered the invasion. The Cuban armed forces were able to defeat the CIA's brigade in merely three days.
  • Freedom Riders

    Freedom Riders
    The Freedom Riders History Although the Supreme Court declared segregation of the public transit system, many southern areas failed to enforce the change, and the federal governement never assessed their failure. In response to this, mixed racial groups rode interstate buses from the North to the South in protest of the south's ignorance. Many local cities arrested some riders, even though the government said to disregard the local laws.
  • Kennedy's Space Race Proposal

    Kennedy's Space Race Proposal
    Neil Armstrong - First Moon Landing 1969Acting toward the Soviets’ claim that their lead in the space race promoted communism, JFK restores America’s prestige in proposing that he will safely land a man on the moon before 1970; a man representing not just himself, but the entire nation. JFK’s proposal was achieved on 20 July 1969 by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during the Apollo 11 space flight.
  • The Berlin Wall

    The Berlin Wall
    Rise and fall of the Berliin wall The Berlin Wall was a concrete barrier built by the East German Republic in efforts of separating East and West Germany, cutting directly across Berlin. Guard towers had also been constructed to ensure the prevention of emigration by its own citizens, which had been significant during the World War II era. After immense protest, the Wall was finally destroyed in 1990, symbolizing reunification of Germany.
  • Kennedy's Assassination

    Kennedy's Assassination
    On a trip to build support for a reelection, JFK and his wife, Jacqueline, rode through Dallas, Texas in an open car, greeting spectators. As if the vehicle he was riding in failed to provide enough protection, there was also an abnormal lack of special service around him, which allowed Soviet Lee Harvey Oswald to fairly easily assassinate the president. This tragic event has shaken not only the nation, but the entire world even today.
  • Johnson Becomes President

    Johnson Becomes President
    As Vice President, Johnson and JFK didn’t make a likely team. With their wide physical and personal differences, JFK believed Johnson would be of better use in the Senate where he was before as a successful majority leader and senator. But despite Johnson’s crude and distasteful behavior, he was still compassionate, doing whatever he could to lessen the tragedy of JFK’s death.
  • The Warren Commission

    The Warren Commission
    When Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested, hours after the shooting of JFK, he was shot and killed while in the hands of officials by Jack Ruby, a tied criminal. This event gave officials the assumption that Oswald didn’t act alone in the murder, which brought on the Warren Commission, an unofficial investigation to see if Oswald and Ruby were, in fact, partners, let alone if there was anyone else involved. But the 10-month investigation provided no evidence of a conspiracy.
  • The Anti-war movement

    The Anti-war movement
    Among the many peace movements held in the previous century, the anti-war movement of the 1960s was mainly an act of the counterculture to protest the US's military contribution in Vietnam. This protest unified groups who protested specific issues, such as communism, imperialism, and capitalism.
  • War on Poverty (Johnson's State of the Union Address)

    War on Poverty (Johnson's State of the Union Address)
    The War on Poverty was a campaign led mainly by President Lyndon B. Johnson, continuing previous President Kennedy's efforts to end the staggering amount of poverty across the country. Johnson used his Great Society campaign to, aside from poverty, assess the roles of education and healthcare throughout the United States in order to emphasize the reduction of poverty.
  • The 24th Amendment

    The 24th Amendment
    The purpose of the 24th amendment was to prohibit the charge of a "poll tax" during elections as a act towards anti-segregation, as this tax's main purpose was to discourage African American citizens from voting mainly in the South. This initially only regarded federal elections, however it was later concluded in the "Harper vs. Virginia Board of Elections" Supreme Court case that poll taxes in state elections was also unconstitutional, and was therefore prohibited.
  • The Mississippi Crisis

    The Mississippi Crisis
    The Freedom Summer was a period of northern, mainly white students traveling to the south to either register black voters or teach them summer school. This wasn't as successful as they had hoped. When 200 students arrived in Mississippi, three of the volunteers were arrested for typical reasons, but went missing after being released, later found dead. This could have been considered as a warning, as the students who stayed in the South later faced bombings, beatings, shootings, and arrests.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 further declared prohibition of racial, ethnic, and religious discrimination. These laws also were enacted toward women as well. The act also garunteed equal protection under the fourteenth and fifteenth amendment. The Civil Rights Act was signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Incident

    Gulf of Tonkin Incident
    While traveling almost 30 miles off the coast of North Vietnam, the USS Maddox approached three North Vietnamese Army torpedo boats. The Vietnamese were ordered to fire their two torpedos if Maddox came 10,000 yards away from them. As the Maddox approached, it fired three rounds in an effort to warn off the Vietnamese, however, the Vietnamese took this offensive and fired, but missed the destroyer. Eventually fighter planes came and destroyed the torpedo boats, although, the Maddox was damaged.
  • Free Speech Movement

    Free Speech Movement
    Taking place at the Universtity of California - Berkeley, was a strictly student-based protest, both led by and enforced by students fighting on behalf of the First Amendment, as the school's administration never garunteed them free speech. Through protesting, the student body demanded the administration allow students to hold political activities and have substantial academic freedom than what they currently had. By the beginning of 1965, the administration agreed to revise its policies.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    Operation Rolling Thunder was a campaign led by a US Air Force and Navy division and the Republic of Vietnam's Air Force. The purposes of the attack were to boost the morale of the Saigon regime in the Republic of Vietnam, to persuade North Vietnam to eliminate support for communism in South Vietnam, to destroy North Vietnam's transportation, industrial base, and air defenses, and to reduce the number of men and material going into South Vietnam. It was the most intense battle since World War II
  • Congress passes Medicare/Medicaid

    Congress passes Medicare/Medicaid
    Congress enacted Medicare under the Social Security Act as a form of healthcare for people aged 65 and older, regardless of their backgrounds. This was very beneficial to Americans, as prior to Medicare, all too many elderly people couldn't afford healthcare. Also, it had no racial or ethnical conditions either. In passing Medicaid, it was essentially the same process, only it was intended for low income American families.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    Unlike all previous voting acts put into effect, the Voting Rights Act ultimately outlawed any and all actions deemed discriminating toward African Americans in the US. It was largely similar to the fifteenth Amendment, stating that people can vote regardless of race or color, although also included in the act was the prohibition of any discriminatory practices in order to register to vote, such as poll tax or literacy tests.
  • The Delano Grape Strike (Grape Boycott)

    The Delano Grape Strike (Grape Boycott)
    The Delano grape strike was considered a secondary boycott conducted by the Union Farm Workers against growers of table grapes in California. This strike ultimately lasted around five years. Although, this protest didn't necessarily have much to do with the grapes themselves, but simply that the farmers be paid equal minimum wage as everyone else. The initial Filipino farmers were joined by Mexican-American farmers, who formed the UFW. This boycott was a symbolic victory for the UFW.
  • Carmichael starts Black Power

    Carmichael starts Black Power
    Stokely Carmichael became the head of the SNCC in May 1966, and before having the position for a month, he has left people abandoning the idea of nonviolent protest. Carmichael objected the perception that he believed that authority among African Americans should be taken by force. What he was trying to enforce was that blacks should depend on themselves to solve issues, not white Americans. Because of Black Power, organizations like CORE stopped being multiracial groups.
  • The March Against Fear

    The March Against Fear
    James Meredith was the leader of this extensive march against racism. When Meredith was shot days after the 220 mile march, other civil rights activists, such as Martin Luther King and Stokely Carmichael. Although, Carmichael didn't make the best example during the rallies, eventually getting arrested and giving his Black Power speech. By the end of the march, around 15,000 multiracial men and women had participated.
  • Establishing MAYO

    Establishing MAYO
    The Mexican American Youth Organization is a civil rights group based in San Antonio, Texas. MAYO played a large role in the Chicano movement, as well as bringing forth equal civil rights to all Mexican Americans. They helped many people get registered during voting registration, but not very many Hispanics were of these people. In schools, students would hold walkouts, which helped them try and persuade administrations to contribute to the school boards.
  • MLK's speech opposing the Vietnam War

    MLK's speech opposing the Vietnam War
    Martin Luther King Jr. publiicly addressed his opposition of America's role in Vietnam. He believed that America wanted to take over Vietnam as though it belonged to them. Many will agree with his statement that fighting in the Vietnam War is especially a economic injustice toward our country and that we have better investments to make at home. This speech was beneficial to King, as it gave him many white supporters, including President Johnson.
  • Poor Peoples' Campaign

    Poor Peoples' Campaign
    Defined by his speech opposing the war in Vietnam, Martin Luther King Jr. and the SCLC joined to create economic justice and human rights for poor people in the US. In the 1960 census, it was calculated that at least 35 million Americans were below the poverty line. King and the SCLC's motive included the fact that everybody should be able to afford everything the should need to live. The campaign wasn't as successful as they had hoped, spending more money on their needs than the poor's.
  • American Indian Movement

    American Indian Movement
    The American Indian Movement was created to assess many different issues regarding the Native American society in Minnesota, mainly poverty, housing, and treaty issues. The campaign ran off of spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty. And since the organization's founding, it has led protests towards cultural renewal, monitored police activities, coordinated employment programs, etc. and has been overall successful for the Native American society.
  • The Tet Offensive

    The Tet Offensive
    The Tet Offensive was a military campaign launched by Viet Cong and North Vietnam against South Vietnam and its allies, including the United States. The significance of the Tet offensive was that it was a surprise attack on South Vietnam during Tet, the Vietnamese New Year and also a period where no combat should have been exchanged. The series of attacks throughout the two days have led the Tet Offensive to be the largest operation in the war up to that point.
  • Attack on the US Embassy

    Attack on the US Embassy
    As part of the Tet Offensive, a group of Viet Cong guerillas attacked the U.S. Embassy, which was being held in Saigon that morning. The soldiers seized the Embassy and held it for around six hours until helicopter carrying US paratroopers landed on the building's roof and routed the Viet Cong.
  • My Lai Massacre

    My Lai Massacre
    The My Lai Massacre was the mass murder of as many as 500 Southern Vietnamese citizens by a US Army regiment during the Vietnam War. This event obviously sparked enormous outrage by the world, and further increase the opposition of the US involvement in the Vietnam War. Only 26 soldiers were charged for the attack, and Lieutenant William Calley was sentenced to life in prison, but only served three and a half years of house arrest.
  • Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.

    Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
    After Martin Luther King Jr's miraculous efforts at changing the African American society through civil disobedience, after winning the Nobel Peace Prize for his leadership, he was assassinated outside his room at Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee by James Earl Ray. His last words were to musician Ben Branch, who was performing at an event he was to attend later that night. After his assassination, many people thought the concept of nonviolence died with him.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968

    Civil Rights Act of 1968
    The main purpose of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 was to provide equal housing for all Americans regardless of race, ethicity, or religion. During the riots following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., Lyndon B. Johnson, his ally, signed it without much hesitation, as he had signed the Civil Rights Act four years earlier, as well as the Voting Rights Act. Not only did the law follow-up the prohibition of discrimination, but allowed the sale, resale, and financing of housing.
  • The election of 1968

    The election of 1968
    The election of 1968 was ran by Republican Richard Nixon, Democrat Hubert Humphrey, both being vice presidents, and Nixon winning the election by 301 electoral votes and 31.8 million popular votes. What caught many people's attention in Nixon's campaign was that he vowed to restore law and order to cities that were broken with riots and crime, along with the many negative events that have occured that decade. Although, the election, like many previous elections, ended in a near landslide.
  • The New Black Power

    The New Black Power
    After voting rights were granted to African Americans in the south, Black Power failed to subside, but took on an entirely different concept. In many southern counties, the populations were at least 50 percent African American. Many were elected into government offices and judicial courts as high as the Supreme Court. Jesse Jackson, a civil rights activist, was able to become a Democratic candidate in the 1980s election.
  • Formation of La Raza Unida Party

    Formation of La Raza Unida Party
    Associated with the Mexican American Youth Organization, La Raza Unida Party aimed at better housing, employment, and education for Mexican-Americans. La Raza Unida Party originated at a gathering of 300 Mexican-Americans in Crystal City, Texas by Jose Angel Gutierrez and Mario Compean, the same leader of MAYO.
  • Campus protests result in violence

    Campus protests result in violence
    In opposition to the US involvement in the Vietnam War, universities from around the country formed groups expressing anti-war opinions. In efforts to express these opinions, students did things like burning draft cards and destroying ROTC buildings on campuses. Note that student activist groups hardly went to a national level because they believed it would be too difficult to acheive.
  • Passing of the Equal Rights Amendment

    Passing of the Equal Rights Amendment
    During the hearings to lower the voting age to eighteen, a group of feminists interrupted the hearing with a demand that they get a hearing for the Equal Rights Amendment, to which senators agreed to assess. In the Equal Rights Amendment, it asks that all women have equal rights in society, politics, and economics. These activists claimed that their current social status was not meeting these standards. The bill eventually made it to Congress, where President Nixon immediately approved it.
  • The Christmas Bombing

    The Christmas Bombing
    In order to force North Vietnam to make concessions, President Nixon ordered around the clock bombings to Hanoi and Haiphong in North Vietnam for two weeks in December 1972. When they showed no change, Nixon ordered the bombing to stop. Then in January 1973, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the United States came to an agreement. The US would remove its armed forces from Vietnam to allow them to rebuild and the Vietnamese agreed to release all prisoners of war. But not everyone told the truth.