The Space Race

  • Sputnik 1

    Sputnik 1
    First artificial satellite launched into low elpitical orbit around Earth, first signal from space - USSR
  • Sputnik 2

    Sputnik 2
    The second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, the first to carry a living animal, a dog named Laika. - USSR
  • Explorer 1

    Explorer 1
    The first US satellite launched into orbit. It was the first spacecraft to detect the Van Allen radiation belt. - USA
  • Explorer 2

    Explorer 2
    It was to be a repeat of the Explorer 1 mission. However, due to a failure in the rocket during launch, the spacecraft did not reach orbit. - USA
  • Vanguard 1

    Vanguard 1
    The first satellite to be solar powered. Although communication with it was lost in 1964, it remains the oldest manmade satellite still in orbit. - USA
  • NASA founded (the G.O.A.T of organizations)

    NASA founded (the G.O.A.T of organizations)
    President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. - USA
  • Pioneer 1

    Pioneer 1
    The first spacecraft launched by NASA, the newly formed space agency of the United States. - USA
  • Luna 1

    Luna 1
    The first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit. Also, the first manmade satellite to orbit the moon. - USSR
  • Pioneer 4

    Pioneer 4
    A spin-stabilized unmanned spacecraft launched as part of the Pioneer program on a lunar flyby trajectory and into a heliocentric orbit making it the first probe of the United States to escape from the Earth's gravity. It fell into a solar orbit, becoming the
    first U.S. sun orbiter. - USA
  • Luna 2

    Luna 2
    The second of the Soviet Union's Luna program spacecraft launched to the Moon. It was the first spacecraft to reach the surface of the Moon, and the first man-made object to hit another celestial body. -USSR
  • Luna 3

    Luna 3
    The first-ever mission to photograph the far side of the Moon. It was also the third space probe to be sent to the neighborhood of the Moon. - USSR
  • Tiros 1

    Tiros 1
    The first successful low-Earth orbital weather satellite, and the first of a series of Television Infrared Observation Satellites. - USA
  • Discoverer XIV

    Discoverer XIV
    A spy satellite used in the Corona program managed by DARPA and the United States Air Force. The first U.S. camera equipped
    Corona spy satellite. - USA
  • Vostok 1

    Vostok 1
    The first spaceflight of the Vostok program and the first manned spaceflight in history. Launched with Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, making him the first human to cross into outer space. - USSR
  • Mercury Freedom 7

    Mercury Freedom 7
    Carried the first U.S. astronaut into space on a suborbital flight, Alan Shepard. - USA
  • Vostok 2

    Vostok 2
    Carrying Gherman Titov, the first day long Soviet space flight. -USSR
  • Mercury Friendship 7

    Mercury Friendship 7
    The third human spaceflight for the U.S. and part of Project Mercury. Took off with John Glenn, Jr. the first American in orbit, and orbited the Earth three times. - USA
  • Telstar 1

    Telstar 1
    It successfully relayed through space the first television pictures, telephone calls, and fax images, and provided the first live transatlantic television feed. - USA
  • Mariner 2

    Mariner 2
    An American space probe to Venus that was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful planetary encounter. - USA
  • Vostok 6

    Vostok 6
    The first human spaceflight to carry a woman, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, into space. - USSR
  • Ranger 7

    Ranger 7
    The first American space probe to successfully transmit close images of the lunar surface back to Earth. It was also the first completely successful flight of the Ranger program. - USA
  • First Space Walk

    First Space Walk
    The first spacewalk was made from Soviet Vostok 2 by Alexei
    A. Leonov. Duration was 12 minutes. - USSR
  • Ranger 9

    Ranger 9
    It transmitted high-quality images of the moon, many of
    which were shown live in the first television spectacular about
    the moon. - USA
  • First U.S Space Walk

    First U.S Space Walk
    Edward White made the first U.S. spacewalk from Gemini 4.
    Duration was 22 minutes. - USA
  • Mariner 4

    Mariner 4
    The fourth in a series of spacecraft intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode. Mariner 4 performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. It captured the first images of another planet ever returned from deep space; their depiction of a cratered, seemingly dead world largely changed the view of the scientific community on life on Mars. - USA
  • Venus 3

    Venus 3
    Soviet Venus 3 was launched on November 19, 1965, becoming the first craft to hit Venus on March 1, 1966. - USSR
  • Gemini 7

    Gemini 7
    It was launched carrying Frank Borman and James A.
    Lovell, Jr., making 206 orbits around Earth and proving a trip to
    the Moon possible. - USA
  • Luna 9

    Luna 9
    The first spacecraft to achieve a soft landing on the Moon, or any planetary body other than Earth, and to transmit photographic data to Earth from the surface of another planetary body. - USSR
  • Luna 10

    Luna 10
    It was the first artificial satellite of the Moon by becoming the first spacecraft to orbit the moon. - USSR
  • Surveyor 1

    Surveyor 1
    The first U.S. spacecraft to soft-land on the
    Moon. The first lunar soft-lander in the unmanned Surveyor program of NASA. - USA
  • Luna Orbiter 1

    Luna Orbiter 1
    Entered moon orbit and took the first picture of the Earth from the distance of the moon. It was designed primarily to photograph smooth areas of the lunar surface for selection and verification of safe landing sites for the Surveyor and Apollo missions. - USA
  • Soyuz 1

    Soyuz 1
    It was launched successfully into space with Vladimir M. Komarov on board but crashed, killing Komarov, the first human space
    flight fatality. - USSR
  • Zond 5

    Zond 5
    The second ship to travel to and circle the moon, and the first to return safely to Earth. Zond 5 carried the first Earthlings to reach and circle the moon, including two tortoises, mealworms, wine flies, plants, and other lifeforms. - USSR
  • Apollo 7

    Apollo 7
    It was the first mission in the United States' Apollo program to carry a crew into space (Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Donn F. Eisele, and Walter Cunningham). It was also the first U.S. spaceflight to carry astronauts since the flight of Gemini XII. It orbited
    the Earth once. - USA (picture shows the first live broadcast television aboard the American aircraft)
  • Apollo 8

    Apollo 8
    The second human spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program. The first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.The crew were the first ones to experience an earthrise orbiting the moon. - USA
  • Soyuz 4 & 5

    Soyuz 4 & 5
    The aim of the mission was to dock with Soyuz 5, transfer two crew members from that spacecraft, and return to Earth. The previous three Soyuz flights were also docking attempts but all had failed for various reasons. - USSR
  • Apollo 11

    Apollo 11
    the first spaceflight that landed humans on the Moon. Mission commander Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin landed the lunar module Eagle on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC. Armstrong became the first to step onto the lunar surface six hours later. Aldrin joined him about 20 minutes later. They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft and collected 47.5 pounds of lunar material for return to Earth. - USA
  • Mariner 6

    Mariner 6
    Mariner 6 returned high-resolution images of the surface of
    Mars, concentrating on the equatorial region. - USA
  • Mariner 7

    Mariner 7
    Mariner 7 returned high-resolution images of the surface of Mars, concentrating on the southern hemisphere. - USA
  • Mariner 9

    Mariner 9
    The United States launched Mariner 9, which became the first
    spacecraft to survey Mars from orbit. - USA
  • Luna 16

    Luna 16
    The first robotic probe to land on the Moon and return a sample of lunar soil to Earth after five unsuccessful similar attempts. - USSR
  • Salyut 1

    Salyut 1
    Salyut 1 space station was launched by the USSR. It remained
    in orbit until May 28, 1973. Later occupied by Soyuz 11 carrying G.T. Dobrovolsky, V.N. Volkov, and V.I. Patsayev. However, on June 29th the passengers died upon Soyuz 11’s re-entry. - USSR
  • Apollo 14

    Apollo 14
    the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon. It was the last of the "H missions," targeted landings with two-day stays on the Moon with two lunar EVAs, or moonwalks. It launched by the United States
    with Alan Shepard. They explore the moon and transport lunar
    material. Shepard becomes the first person to hit a golf ball on
    the moon. - USA
  • Apollo 15

    Apollo 15
    The ninth manned mission in the United States' Apollo program, the fourth to land on the Moon, and the eighth successful manned mission. It was the first of what were termed "J missions", long stays on the Moon, with a greater focus on science than had been possible on previous missions. It was also the first mission on which the Lunar Roving Vehicle was used. - USA
  • Mariner 9 continued

    Mariner 9 continued
    American Mariner 9 became the first spacecraft to orbit another
    planet, Mars. - USA
  • Pioneer 10

    Pioneer 10
    launched toward Jupiter, designed to familiarize alien life with humans. It returned the first close-up images of Jupiter in 1973. - USA
  • Pioneer 11

    Pioneer 11
    Pioneer 11 was launched flying past Jupiter in 1974 and Saturn
    in 1979 where it discovered new rings. Its mission was to study the asteroid belt.
  • Mariner 10

    Mariner 10
    The first dual planet mission. Over the next year, it returned photographs of Venus and Mercury. The mission objectives were to measure Mercury's environment, atmosphere, surface, and body characteristics and to make similar investigations of Venus. - USA
  • Salyut 3

    Salyut 3
    The first military space station was launched. It remained in orbit until Feb. 2, 1977. It was the second Almaz military space station, and the first such station to be launched successfully.[2] It was included in the Salyut program to disguise its true military nature.[5] Due to the military nature of the station, the Soviet Union was reluctant to release information about its design, and about the missions relating to the station. - USSR
  • Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASPT)

    Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASPT)
    The first joint U.S.–Soviet space flight, It involved the docking of an Apollo Command/Service Module with the Soviet Soyuz 19. The mission included both joint and separate scientific experiments, and provided useful engineering experience for future joint US–Russian space flights, such as the Shuttle–Mir Program and the International Space Station. - USA & USSR