The Road to Revolution
French and Indian War Begins-Young George Washington sent to Ohio River Valley to protect British colonists from French
-Fired first shots at French force near Fort Dusquesne
-French respond with 10-hour siege of Fort Necessity, Washington forced to surrender on 4th of July
French and Indian War-War for colonial territory between Britain and France, with native allies on both sides.
-Led to worldwide Seven Year's War
-During war professional British soldiers held contempt for American "buckskin" militiamen, treated as second-class citizens.
Battle of QuebecBattle of Quebec info
-British scale cliffs up to Quebec during the night
-Battle the next morning on Plains of Abraham on the outskirts of Quebec
-Battle lasts 15 minutes- French defeated
- British commander James Wolfe(in picture) and French commander Marquis de Montcalm both fatally wounded
French and Indian War Ends-Treaty of Paris ended the war,
-No more French power in North America, but allowed to keep West Indian Islands. French settlers remain.
Proclamation of 1763Proclamation of 1763 information and text
-The Proclamation of 1763 forbade the settlement of American colonists beyond the Appalachian mountains pending further adjustments.
-It was designed to fairly work out Native disputes.
-The Proclamation angered colonists, as they had fought for this territory and believed they had a right to it.
-Many colonists settled on this territory anyway.
Sugar Act-First law ever passed by Parliament raising tax revenue in colonies
-Increased tax on sugar imported from West Indies to North American colonies
-Colonists- very unhappy. After bitter protest these taxes were substantially lowered and agitation died down.
Stamp ActStamp Act information and text-Act passed by Prime Minister George Grenville in 1765 to pay for the military stationed in the colonies
-Required that stamps be affixed to paper as proof of payment
-About fifty items needed stamps, including commercial and legal documents
-Examples: marriage licenses, bills of lading, newspapers, pamphlets, diplomas and playing cards
-Caused uproar in colonies- led to nonimportation agreements, Stamp Act Congress
-Repealed after much protest in 1766
Quartering ActText of Quartering Act
-Act passed by George Grenville in 1765 requiring certain colonies to provide food and lodging to British soldiers stationed there
-Kept colonial resentment alive after Sugar Tax reduction
Stamp Act Congress-Congress in New York City with twenty seven delegates representing nine colonies.
-had dignified debate, then drew up statement of rights and grievances urging Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act
-Ignored in Britain, had little effect in colonies, but step toward colonial unity
Declaratory ActDeclaratory Act text
-This act bound the colonies to Parliament "in all cases whatsoever," affirming Parliament's complete authority over them.
-Colonists wanted some self-government, Parliament would not grant- angered.
Townshend ActsTownshend Acts information and text-Acts passed by Prime Minister Charles Townshend
-The most important of these acts was a light tax on goods such as tea, paint, glass, white lead and paper payable in American ports
-Part of tax paid for royal governors' salaries- colonists cherished right to control governors by suspending their salary
-Colonists somewhat angered, revived nonimportation agreements, but not as angered as they were by Stamp Act
-Smuggled tea for cheaper, smuggling increased
British troops occupy BostonThe British government, fearing the breakdown of law and order in Boston landed to regiments of soldiers there.
Soldiers- drunken, unpleasant, hated by colonists, constantly taunted
Townshend Taxes RepealedRevenue from the taxes imposed by the Townshend Acts was low due to nonimportation agreements, so Prime Minister Lord North persuaded Parliament to repeal them all, save for the tax on tea, which angered the colonists the most, to remind them of Parliamentary taxation.
Boston MassacreBoston Massacre Historical SocietySixty colonists taunted ten redcoats, clubbing them and throwing rocks and snowballs, provoking them to open fire. Eleven "innocent" colonists were killed, including Crispus Attucks, the leader of the mob and a runaway "mulatto" slave. Though both sides were partially to blame, this incident was used in revolutionary propaganda (pictured) and fueled the colonists' anger.
Boston Tea PartyBoston Tea Party Historical Society
-Bostonians disguised as Indians dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor
-Earlier that year- nearly bankrupt British East India Company-17 million chests of unsold tea. British government lose tax revenue if bankrupt- gave British India Company monopoly of American tea trade. Tea cheap, even with tax.
-Americans realized Britain's attempt to make them accept tax- protests, including Boston Tea Party.
"Intolerable Acts"Information, text of all acts
Parliament passed acts to punish Massuchsetts, specifically Boston, for Tea Party.
-Boston Port Act- closed Boston harbor to trade until damages paid, order assured
-Administration of Justice Act- British officials who committed misdemeanors tried in England
Massachusetts Government Act- many charter rights revoked, restritions on town meetings
Colonists were angered even further by this
Quebec ActQuebec Act Text
Parliament passed act regarding French Canadians in territory from French and Indian War.
-Allowed to retain customs- practice Catholicism, no trial by jury or representative assembly
-Borders of Quebec province extended to Ohio River
American colonists considered this an "Intolerable Act." Didn't like Catholics, wanted Ohio River valley that they had fought for, feared rights being taken.
First Continental CongressThe Articles of Association Text
Convention held in Philadelphia to discuss colonial grievances, what to do about them. 12 colonies were represented by 55 delegates. Drew up Declaration of Rights, wrote appeals to other British American colonies, King George III and the people of Britain. Petitions rejected. Also established The Association, banning all trade with Britain- import and export. Did not yet want independence.
Battle of ConcordTook place right after Battle of Lexington. British attempt to seize colonial gunpowder, capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock- leaders of rebellion. Colonists prepared after Lexington, hid behind walls and shot British, pushed back to Boston. Seventy British soldiers were killed, with 300 total British casualties.
Battle of Lexington"Lexington Massacre" took place right before Battle of Concord. Both were attempts by the British to seize colonial gunpowder and capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock- leaders of rebellion. Colonial militia did not disperse quick enough- British opened fire. Eight colonists killed, several wounded.
Second Continental CongressAll 13 colonies were represented at yet another convention to address American grievances. Made more appeals of grievances to the king. They sent an "Olive Branch" petition as well, affirming their loyalty and pledging for an and to hostilities. Although they did not yet seek independence, the congress decided to raise money for an army, appointing Washington as its commander in chief (pictured) in a contradictory move.
Battle of Bunker HillTook place at Breed's Hill overlooking Boston with British staging a frontal attack. The colonists slaughtered the British until they ran out of gunpowder, when they were forced to retreat. Though they lost the battle, the colonists struck a blow to the British, which boosted morale.
Thomas Paine's Common Sense PublishedText of Common Sense
Common Sense- pamphlet that swayed many to the revolutionary cause. Inspirational best seller-120,000 copies.
Posed revolutionary ideas
-Questioned logic of a small island controlling a much larger continent
-Called for independence and the formation of a republic- a government with authority derived from the people.