The Mexican Revolution

  • Porfiriato (1876-1911)

    Porfiriato (1876-1911)
    A 35-year period (1876—1911) in which Porfirio Díaz ruled Mexico. The period is marked by significant internal stability, modernization, and economic growth. However, the Díaz regime grew unpopular due to repression and political stagnation.
  • Plan of San Luis Potosi

    Plan of San Luis Potosi
    written by Francisco Madero (while exiled in Texas) which called for the overthrow of the Diaz regime. It stated that the results of the 1910 election were null and void, Madero assumed the title of provisional president and called for free elections when conditions permitted. The rebel movement gained a lot of support, and the Revolution began on November 20, 1910.
  • Battle of Ciudad Juarez

    Battle of Ciudad Juarez
    Took place in May 1911 between forces loyal to President Porfirio Diaz and rebel forces of Francisco Madero. Pascal Orozco and Pancho Villa commanded Madero's army, which gathered in Ciudad Juarez. Diaz's army surrendered after two days of fighting, Orozco and Villa took control of the town, and Diaz resigned because he realized he could not defeat the rebels.
  • Madero Elected President

    Madero Elected President
    Madero won the popular vote (90%) with a large margin and was sworn into office on November 6, 1911. He wanted to change some aspects of the Díaz regime, but he did not want to institute policies that went against the rich landowner class to which his family belonged. Expecting rapid change and land reform, Madero very quickly alienated his former allies, Pascual Orozco and Emiliano Zapata.
  • Plan de Ayala

    Plan de Ayala
    Emiliano Zapata's reform policy which claimed that all foreign lands would be seized, all lands previously taken from ejidos would be returned, 1/3 of all land held by hacendados would be taken for redistribution, and all lands owned by Zapata's enemies would be taken. Zapatistas found Madero going against what he had promised and began a rebellion against
  • La Decena Tragica

    La Decena Tragica
    Victoriano Huerta joins Felix Diaz and Bernardo Reyes in a military coup planned to overthrow Madero's government. The "Decena Tragica", or ten tragic days, engulfs Mexico City in fighting February 9-19, 1913. During that time, Huerta had Madero and his Vice President killed, and Huerta takes Presidency.
  • Plan de Guadalupe

    Plan de Guadalupe
    Carranza assumes leadership of the rebellion against Huerta; he declared Huerta's rise to power was illegitimate; Carranza declares himself "First Chief of the Constitutionalist Army"; Obregon was put in charge of Carranza's army which was to fight for the restoration of ejidos and the establishment of the National Agrarian Commission, it also called for improved conditions for the poor.
  • Tampico Incident

    Tampico Incident
    A small US landing party from the USS Dolphin was arrested after wandering into a prohibited area. The sailors were soon released and given an apology. The apology was found insufficient and the US demanded the Mexican army to hoist the US flag and present a twenty-one gun salute to the American Navy.
  • Aguascalientes Convention

    Aguascalientes Convention
    Declared Carranza in Rebellion because he refused to share power. The "big four" (Carranza, Villa, Zapata, and Obregon) were supposed to attend. The delegation ruled for large scale agrarian reform and dismissed Carranza as president. The convention resulted in declaring Carranza in open rebellion, putting Villa in charge to put him down.
  • US Recognizes Carranza Government

    US Recognizes Carranza Government
    In October 1915, the U.S. recognizes Carranza as the president of Mexico, which establishes legitimacy. As a result, Villa begins a reign of terror, starting in the U.S. to get the U.S. involved in the Revolution. Villa's goal is ultimately overthrowing the Carranza government.
  • Raid on Columbus, NM

    Raid on Columbus, NM
    Between Villistas and the United States Army. Villa himself led the assault, only to be driven back into Mexico. Although there were only 17 American casualties in comparison to 100 Villista casualties, the attack angered Americans and President Woodrow Wilson. Wilson ordered the capture of Villa and a reward of $50,000 dead or alive. The US, led by Pershing, invaded Mexico in an unsuccessful attempt to capture Villa.
  • Villista Movement

    Villista Movement
    In 6 months, support for the Villista movement is growing because there is massive unemployment in Mexico. In addition to having military success, it is a very misguided and violent movement. In Torreon (and other nearby cities), Villa orders innocent women to be shot and killed, there is gang rape, and other violent behavior.
  • Carranza Elected President

    Carranza Elected President
    Carranza attempts to assert control over Mexico and becomes a despotic leader. By the time he takes office May 1, 1917, Carranza establishes a new constitution which regards rights of labor and distribution of land, but he has no intention of following it. By the end of his term in 1920, Carranza picked his successor, turning Obregon against him. Obregon calls for the overthrow of the Carranza government as a result.
  • Carranza Murdered

    Carranza Murdered
    April 1920, Carranza attempts to flee from Mexico with 60 railroad cars full of supporters, arms, and gold bars money. He is captured and killed by a bodyguard named Rodolfo Herrero in the Puebla mountains May 7, 1920.
  • Obregon Becomes President

    Obregon Becomes President
    The election of Obregon (1920-1924) ends the tumultuous period of the Revolution and leads into the reform phase. Obregon grants amnesty to Villa as well as 50,000 acres of land which Villa accepts. The people of Mexico support Obregon because he brings stability and peace to Mexico, also establishing legitimacy for the Mexican government.