Sir John Harington is said to have invented 'The Ajax', a flush toilet, for Elizabeth I of England. His design was ridiculed in England, but was adopted in France under the name Angrez. The design had a flush valve to let water out of the tank, and a wash
A valve-type flush toilet was invented by JF Brondel.
Alexander Cummings invented the S-trap (British patent no. 814?), still used today, that used standing water to seal the outlet of the bowl, preventing the escape of foul air from the sewer. His design had a sliding valve in the bowl outlet above the trap
Samuel Prosser invented and patented the 'plunger closet'.
Joseph C. Gayetty invented toilet paper
an early jet flush toilet was manufactured by the Beaufort Works in Chelsea, England.