Essay writing rules for writers

The History of the Technologies of Writing

  • 1450 BCE

    The City of Ugarit

    The City of Ugarit
    The city of Ugarit was formed, and they wrote Mesopotamian cuneiform on clay tablets. They also developed a cosmopolitan civilization, along with Aegean, Anatolia, Mesopotamis, and Egypt, and their own alphabetical order
  • 1200 BCE

    Ugarit Fell

    Ugarit Fell
    The Ugarit branch of the alphabetic family died out after Ugarit fell.
  • 900 BCE

    Matres Lectionis

    Matres Lectionis
    The Aramaeans introduced the "mothers of reading" in 9th century BC. The mater lectionis was their version of the long vowel, and they became known around the eleventh-tenth centuries BC.
  • 825 BCE


    The Carthaginian dialect of the Phoenician script spread all over Europe, and although Carthage was destroyed in 146BC, it was still spoken until the 5th century AD.
  • 800 BCE

    The Diamond Sutra

    The Diamond Sutra
    The oldest printed book dates back to 880BC and it discussed Buddha's opinions.
  • 500 BCE


    The Egyptians invented papyrus in 500BC.
  • 400 BCE

    The First Newsletters Went Out

    The First Newsletters Went Out
    The first newsletters and subscriptions were sent out by the Romans with the start of their postal service in the 4th century.
  • 400 BCE

    Fall of the Alexandria Library

    Fall of the Alexandria Library
    This library was constructed in the third century, contained 40,000 volumes and was destroyed in the fifth century. It held all historic works, and only a few copies were found in the remains.
  • 105 BCE

    Invention of Paper

    Invention of Paper
    The Chinese started to use plant and animal fibers to produce paper; the actual product was invented by Ts'ai Lun.
  • 350

    Christianity Was Introduced in Ethiopia

    Christianity Was Introduced in Ethiopia
    The Ugarit script was modified to include vowels, be written left to write, and it was used for Semitic languages like Amharic and Tigrinya.
  • 500

    The Turks

    The Turks
    The first Altaic people to write back in the sixth century AD. Their oldest inscriptions date back to the eighth century, found in Mongolia. Their script was written from right to left.
  • 500


    Originally made out of reeds, animal horns, and bones, the quill evolved into a metal pen around AD500. Metal pens were even found in the ruins of Pompeii.
  • 880


    The Chinese invented the first printing technology that transferred pictures and text from wood to parchment.
  • 1050

    Phoenicians Altered The Script

    Phoenicians Altered The Script
    The Phoenicians made changes to the script, and now it regularly ran from right to left. They all faced the same direction, and were pushed down to 22.
  • 1050

    Entirety of Europe was Using Paper

    Entirety of Europe was Using Paper
    There's evidence of manuscripts written on Ts'ai Lun's invention dating back to 1050.
  • 1400


    The Incans used quipus to record keep. They were knotted strings that kept track of records, and are similar to the binary system of the common computer.
  • 1439

    Invention of the Printing Press

    Invention of the Printing Press
    Invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1439, it produced a movable type-based printing system.
  • 1450

    42-Line Bible

    42-Line Bible
    Gutenberg created his 42-line bible on the printing press.
  • 1526

    The First English Bible

    The First English Bible
    The first English Bible was created by William Tyndale.
  • The Concept of the Typewriter

    The Concept of the Typewriter
    The concept of the typewriter was patented by Henry Mill in 1714.
  • The First Electric Typewriter

    The First Electric Typewriter
    Thomas Edison patented the first electric typewriter by the end of the 1800s
  • Penny Newspapers

    Penny Newspapers
    The first penny newspapers were released in the 1830s by the New York Sun and the New York Herald. They created news media for the masses that shared stories of a scandalizing or commercial nature.
  • Telegraphs

    The telegraph was invented to make it possible to communicate over long distances by Morse code, which was created by Samuel B. Morse.
  • The Pony Express

    The Pony Express
    With demand for news, the Pony Express was invented, so mailman carried saddlebags of mail to their destinations. The transcontinental railroad was also used to transport mail.

    The first keyboard to have the QWERKY layout was the Sholes and Glidden typewriter. It was sold for $125, and the only flaw was that the user basically typed blindly.
  • Invention of the Phone

    Invention of the Phone
    Alexander Graham Bell invented the first phone, giving people the ability to communicate at long distances.
  • The First Fountain Pen

    The First Fountain Pen
    After realizing that the quill's ink was messy, Lewis Edson Waterman invented the first fountain pen.
  • The Mimeograph

    The Mimeograph
    Invented in 1884, Albert Dick created the first machine that copied documents.
  • First Ballpoint Pen (Unsuccessful)

    First Ballpoint Pen (Unsuccessful)
    Invented by J.J Loud, this pen could only be used on hard surfaces.
  • The Typewriter that Revolutionized Typing

    The Typewriter that Revolutionized Typing
    The Underwood Typewriter revolutionized typing. It gave typists more visibility when typing, and it outsold the Sholes typewriter. This typewriter increased demand in office jobs, led to Mark Twains first typed manuscript "Life on the Mississippi," and it led to women having more jobs.
  • Invention of the Z1 Computer

    Invention of the Z1 Computer
    Invented by Konrad Zuse, and it was the first functional computer.
  • First Successful Ballpoint Pen

    First Successful Ballpoint Pen
    Lazlo Josef Biro patented the first ballpoint pen, his name actually became synonymous for ballpoint pen.
  • First BIC Pen

    First BIC Pen
    Invented by Marcel Bich in 1950, which led to the crystal version in 1958.
  • Styalator

    The first stylus used on a tablet, invented by Tom Dimond.
  • The User-Friendly Xerox

    The User-Friendly Xerox
    Created by Chester Carlson, the first photocopier was sold in 1959 and revolutionized the copying of the printed page.
  • The Typewriter With Magnetic Tape

    The Typewriter With Magnetic Tape
    First typewriter to use magnetic tape that was reusable.
  • ProtoCanaanite Deciphered

    ProtoCanaanite Deciphered
    W.F. Albright deciphered 23 correct phonemic letters of protoCanaanite. Although, people were still skeptical of his deciphering.
  • The Dynabook Concept

    The Dynabook Concept
    The Dynabook concept was created and was way before its time. It acted as though it was paper and pencil, an easel, typewriter, and musical instrument in one, but it wasn’t able to be created.
  • The First Touchscreen

    The First Touchscreen
    Touchscreens were invented by Dr. G Samuel Hurst, which led to the idea behind the stylus.
  • The First E-book

    The First E-book
    The Declaration of Independence was the first ebook released during Project Gutenberg.
  • Invention of the Cell Phone

    Invention of the Cell Phone
    Martin Cooper invented the first cell phone in 1973 while working for Motorola.
  • Word-Processing and Emailing

    Word-Processing and Emailing
    Word-processing was in demand, so Microsoft Word, Wordperfect, WordStar and Apple Writer II were created. Also, email was created and the first message was sent using ARPAnet's mail system... the email said "QWERTYUIOP."
  • The First Laptop

    The First Laptop
    The first laptop was invented in 1981 and it was called Osborne 1.
  • The Grid Compass

    The Grid Compass
    The Grid Compass was the next step in the laptop industry, but it was really bulky and ugly.
  • E-books on CD-ROMs

    E-books on CD-ROMs
    The Voyager company released ebooks on CD-ROMs, including Jurassic Park
  • Mac's Worst Product

    Mac's Worst Product
    Mac joined the laptop with the first portable Mac computer, called the Macintosh Portable, and it was deemed one of the worst products ever.
  • Earliest Samples of Alphabet Found

    Earliest Samples of Alphabet Found
    The earliest samples of alphabetic writing were found in the 1990s in the "Valley of Terror" in Egypt. The scripts contained two inscriptions that dated around 1900-1800BC during Egypt's golden age.
  • Personal Digital Assistant

    Personal Digital Assistant
    The Personal Digital Assistant, called Apple Newton, was released by Apple and was created to take notes on the go and keep track of events
  • Floppy Disks

    Floppy Disks
    There were 50 digital books on floppy disk offered by Digital Book Inc.
  • The Libretto

    The Libretto
    Toshiba released their Libretto and it was the first subnotebook ever because it was so small.
  • Danielle's Birthday

    Danielle's Birthday
    Danielle was brought into the world on August 18, 1996.
  • BlueTooth

    Created by five companies: Ericsson, Intel, Nokia, Toshiba, and IBM. It's now possible to transmit things wirelessly.
  • Google

    Google was found by Larry Page and Sergey Brin.
  • First E-book Readers

    First E-book Readers
    The first ebook readers were launched (called the rocket ebook) and librarys provided free ebooks for the public through their websites.
  • Microsoft's First Tablet

    Microsoft's First Tablet
    The first Microsoft tablet was released and Bill Gates claimed it had no limits.
  • The Amazon Kindle

    The Amazon Kindle
    Amazon Kindle, books were now more available digitally and the kindle made it possible to carry them everywhere.
  • iPad, Google, and Amazon

    iPad, Google, and Amazon
    The first iPad was released with iBooks, which sold half a million ebooks in less than a month, then Google ebooks launched, and Amazons ebook sales outnumbered their hardcopy sales.
  • Microsoft Surface

    Microsoft Surface
    Microsoft Surface was released, but is considered more as a tablet than a laptop with an adjustable kickstand and keyboard.
  • E-books Took Over

    E-books Took Over
    More ebooks were sold than hardcopies for the first time ever.
  • First Bluetooth Typewriter Inspired Keyboard

    First Bluetooth Typewriter Inspired Keyboard
    A company called QwerkyToys created the first typewriter-inspired bluetooth keyboard, nearly 150 years after the typewriter was invented.
  • The iPencil

    The iPencil
    The iPencil was released by Apple alongside the iPad Pro; it can be used as though it's an actual pencil.
  • The First iPad Pro Was Released

    The First iPad Pro Was Released
    Apple released the first iPad Pro in 2015, it offered more technology than all the other iPads and was compatible with the new iPencil.