The History of Special Education

  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    Civil Rights Act of 1866
    The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition. As citizens they could make and enforce contracts, sue and be sued, give evidence in court, and inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property. This was important because it was trying to protect people or different race from being discriminated.

    ALL INFORMATION FOUND IN "LEGAL ASPECTS OF SPECIAL EDUCATION" TEXTBOOK.
  • Civil Rights Cases

    Civil Rights Cases
    These cases delivered a crippling blow to the rights established and the progress made during and immediately following the Cvil War. The Supreme Court ruled that the protection of the rights guaranteed by the 14th amendment applied only to the states and not to individuals. This was important because these cases showed that they destroyed the rights and that something else was going to have to happen to get everything back in order.
    ALL INFORMATION FOUND IN "LEGAL ASPECTS OF SPECIAL EDUCATION"
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    In a decision that had possibly the most debilitating effect on civil rights and special education in the history of the United States, the Supreme Court established the "separate but equal" doctrine. The court declared it was legal to segregate individuals and have separate facilties so long as they were equal. This is important because it was the Brown v. Board of Education that changed everything.

    ALL INFORMATION FOUND IN "LEGAL ASPECTS OF SPECIAL EDUCATION" TEXTBOOK.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    This set the stage for Title Iand also for the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act by making the equal protection clause of the Consitiution an underlying principle for the education of all America's children. The brown decision was considered the springboard for litigation and legislation that provided individuals with disabilities equal access to a free and appropriate public education. This is important because this opened the door of opportunity for all individuals to protect them.
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
    Section 504 was a civil rights law signed by president Nixon. This was considered the first comprehensive, nationwide law to protect individuals with disabilities in public schools. Students receiving services and protected under seciont 504 have the same legal right to FAPE as students receiving services under IDEA. This is important because this law is for life which will prevent discrimination against individuals with disabilities and let them know they will always be protected.
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  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    IDEA was organized in a logical structure, parts A-D, that has remained basically the same since its original enactment in 1975. Three of the most important elements of IDEA is IEP, FAPE and LRE. This is important because the law combines a bill of rights for children with disabilities and their families with provisions for federal fiscal support. This law provides educational and other management directives to all levels of school governance. -TEXTBOOK-
  • Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)

    Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
    FAPE was included in IDEA and it was one of the most important and prominent areas of the language of the statute. There seemed to be alot of problems with this because many people have different definitions of "appropriate" which makes it hard to know what would be best for all students. FAPE is important because it has the Rowley Two-Part test in it to see if they act has been satisfied. -TEXTBOOK-
  • Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

    Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
    LRE states that students should be removed from the regular education setting only when the nature and severity of their disabilities warrent such a removal and when they are included with their nondisabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate. This is intended to protect children with disabilities from discriminatory practices. This is important because it ensures access to education with their nondisabled peers.
  • The Individualized Education Program (IEP)

    The Individualized Education Program (IEP)
    IEP's are essential to ensuring a free appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment for every student with a disability. The IEP is intended to ensure that all necessary individuals are aware of the specific needs, requirements, services and accommodations deemed essential to meeting the child's individual educational needs. This is important because it will ensure that each student will get their own personal needs met to be successful in school. TEXTBOOK-
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    ADA was signed by George H. W. Bush on July 26, 1990. The signing of this act was witnessed by one of the largest audiences in White House history. The act extends to reach of Section 504 in order to further protect individuals with disabilties from discrimination. The three titles that affect educators are Titles I (employment), II (public services) and III (public accommodations). This is important because it adds on to what Section 504 is trying to do with discrimination. -TEXTBOOK-
  • No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
    NCLB was signed by George W. Bush in 2001. The focus of this act was on children with disabilities. This was an attempt to ensure the best possible education for all students, whether disabled or from a disadvantaged background. It sets minimum standards for paraprofessionals, including those who assist students with speical needs. This act is important because it was trying to close the achievement gap between minority and low-income students. "Level the playing field" was the stated goal. TEXT