The History of DNA

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  • Gregor Mendel

    Gregor Mendel
    Gregor Mendel finds out how parents pass on discrete inheritable traits. He cultured pea plants because they were easily controlled for mating and had readily distinguishable varieties. It showed how parents pass off their traits to their offspring.
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan

    Thomas Hunt Morgan
    Thomas Hunt Morgan was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist, and embryologist and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1933 for discoveries relating the role the chromosome plays in heredity.
    He that genes are carried on chromosomes and are the mechanical basis of heredity.
  • First conviction from DNA fingerprinting

    First conviction from DNA fingerprinting
    The First conviction stemming from DNA fingerprinting occured on September, 13, 1902. Harry Jackson was found guilty for breaking into a house in Denmark Hill. He was sentenced to seven years in prison.
  • William Bateson and Reginald Punnett

    William Bateson and Reginald Punnett
    William Bateson and Reginald Punnett discovered inheritance patterns. They experimented with two characteristics in sweet peas, flower color and pollen shape, and discovered inheritance patterns that were totally inconsistant with Mendelian principles
  • Frederick Griffith

    Frederick Griffith
    Frederick Griffith: suggested that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation. Griffith used two strains of pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria which infect mice. His suggestion was correct.
  • Oswald Avery

    Oswald Avery
    For many years, genetic information was thought to be contained in cell protein. Continuing the research done by Frederick Griffith in 1927, Avery worked with MacLeod and McCarty on the mystery of inheritance. He later proved that DNA was the carrier of genes in cells.
  • Rosalind Franklin

    Rosalind Franklin
    She is best known for her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA which led to discovery of DNA double helix. Her data, according to Francis Crick, was "the data we actually used" to formulate Crick and Watson's 1953 hypothesis regarding the structure of DNA. This led to the discovery of the shape of DNA, "Double Helix".
  • Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase

    Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
    Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase infected E-Coli with T2 phage. He labeled it with radioactive material so he could tell what was being infected. He proved that genetic material infects and isn't a protein.
  • Erwin Chargaff

    Erwin Chargaff
    The first and best known achievement was to show that in natural DNA the number of guanine units equals the number of cytosine units and the number of adenine units equals the number of thymine units In human DNA. Also The second of Chargaff's discoveries is that the composition of DNA varies from one species to another, in particular in the relative amounts of A, G, T, and C bases. Such evidence of molecular diversity, which had been presumed absent from DNA,
  • James D. Watson and Francis Crick

    James D. Watson and Francis Crick
    James D. Watson and Francis Crick were the two co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953. They used x-ray diffraction data collected by Rosalind Franklin and proposed the double helix or spiral staircase structure of the DNA molecule. They later won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962.
  • Gentic Code

    Gentic Code
    Marshall Nirenberg, H. Gobind Khorana, Francis Crick, George Gamow, and other scientists crack the genetic code. Sixty-four nucleotide triplets that constitute a universal genetic code for all cells and viruses. This was know as one of the greatest DNA discoveries.
  • Alec Jeffrey

    Alec Jeffrey
    Alec Jeffrey devised a technique that uses DNA polymorphisms to distinguish between different individuals. He later coined the term DNA fingerprinting. This is now important for many paternity, immigration, and murder cases.
  • Gene Therapy is First Used

    Gene Therapy is First Used
    Gene therapy is the use of DNA as a pharmaceutical agent to treat disease. It derives its name from the idea that DNA can be used to supplement or alter genes within an individual's cells as a therapy to treat disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves using DNA that encodes a functional, therapeutic gene in order to replace a mutated gene.
  • Human Genome Project

    Human Genome Project
    The International Scientific research project with a primary goal to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA and to identify and map the approximately 20,000–25,000 genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint.
  • Flavr Savr Tomatoes

    Flavr Savr Tomatoes
    Flavr Savr was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a license for human consumption. It was produced by the Californian company Calgene, and submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992. On May 7,1992 the FDA completed it evaluation of the Flavr Savr tomato and said it was safe to eat.
  • Francis Collins

    Francis Collins
    Collins founded NHGRI's Division of Intramural Research. A collection of investigator-directed laboratories that conduct genome research that has developed into one of the nation's premier research centers in human genetics. Collins wrote a book about his Christian faith, and Pope Benedict XVI appointed Francis Collins to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.
  • Dolly the Sheep

    Dolly the Sheep
    Dolly was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer. She was cloned by Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and colleagues at the Roslin Institute and the biotechnology company PPL Therapeutics near Edinburgh in Scotland. She was born on 5 July 1996 and she lived until the age of six, at which point she died from a progressive lung d disease.She has been called "the world's most famous sheep".
  • John Sulston

    John Sulston
    John Sulston is a British biologist, he was born March 27, 1942. He dedicated his work life to science, especially in the field of molecular biology. He played a leading role in the human genome project. John Sulston was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2002 with Sydney Brenner and Bob Horvitz. They were awarded for the work they had done in understanding the development and dividing of the cells in C. elegans. Picture
  • HapMap

    HapMap published giving a huge resource of SNP's and information. The International HapMap Project is an organization that aims to develop a haplotype map (HapMap) of the human genome, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. HapMap is a key resource for researchers to find genetic variants affecting health, disease and responses to drugs and environmental factors. The information produced by the project is made freely available to researchers around the world.
  • Linus Pauling

    Linus Pauling
    Pauling developed the theory of the molecular clock. Which enables one to judge the separation in time between two species by looking at the number of differences in their hemoglobin proteins. This discovery helped the medical field.