The History of Crime Scene Investigation

Timeline created by kamryns
  • Jan 1, 700

    Chinese using fingerprints

    They did this so they could find the identity of certain documents and a clay sculpture
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Roman attorney showed bloody handprints

    These hand prints framed a blind man for the murder of his mother.
  • Jan 1, 1248

    Hsi Duan Yu is published

    This book contained a strategy to tell the difference between strangulation and drowning.
  • Professor Marcello Malphigi notes fingerprint characteristics

    He identified the certain characteristics in fingerprints, but didn't correlate criminal investigation.
  • Thomas Bewick uses engravings of his own fingerprints

    He did this to identify his own literature that he published.
  • First recorded use of question document analysis occurs in Germany

    A chemical test for an ink dye had been applied to a document called the Konigin Hanschritt.
  • Mathiew Orfila publishes piece on toxicology

    The piece is called Traite des Poisons Tires des Regnes Mineral, Vegetal et Animal, ou Toxicologie General I. Orfila is the father of modern toxicology and also made contributions to the developments of tests used to find the presence of blood in forensic scenes. Credited as the first to use a microscope to assess blood and semen stains.
  • John Evangelist Purkinji publishes paper

    This paper was about the nature of fingerprints and this would suggest a classification system that organized fingerprints into nine types.
  • William Nichol invents polarizing light microscope

  • Adolphe Quetelet states that no two human bodies are alike

    Adolphe Quetelet states that no two human bodies are alike
  • Leuchs notes activity of amylase in human saliva

    Leuchs notes activity of amylase in human saliva
  • Henry Goddard uses bullet comparison

    This was based on the visible flaw of a bullet that is traced back to its original mold.
  • James Marsh uses toxicology in jury trial

    He was a Scottish chemist who used arsenic detection in a jury trial.
  • H. Bayard publishes reliable procedure

    This was a procedure to identify the microscopic detection of sperm, and he noted the characteristics of different substrate fabrics.
  • Jean Servais Stas identifies vegetable poisons in body tissue

  • Sir William Herschel uses thumbprints on documents

    He used these on documents for illiterate people as a substitute for a signature, and also just to verify document signatures.
  • Schonbein

    Schonbein discovered the ability hemoglobin has to oxidize hydrogen peroxide, making it into a foam. This would result in the first presumptive test for blood.
  • Odelbrecht suggests photography of criminals

  • Thomas Taylor suggests using palms and fingertips

    He said these could be used in criminal cases to identify the perpetrator.
  • Rudolph Virchow studies hair & its limitations

    Rudolph Virchow studies hair & its limitations
  • Gilbert Thompson

    A railroad builder uses his thumbprint to protect himself from offending forgeries.
  • Alexandre Lacassagne

    The first to try and differ bullets to their gun barrels. This was based on the number of lands, and the number of grooves.
  • Hans Gross publishes Criminal Investigation

    This was a comprehensive description of the use of physical evidence for solving a crime.
  • Juan Vucetich develops fingerprint classification system

    Juan Vucetich develops fingerprint classification system
    Argentina became the first country to use fingerprints instead of anthropometry.
  • Karl Landsteiner discovers human blood groups

    He was awarded the Nobel prize because of his work in 1930.
  • Professor R.A. Reiss teaches first forensic science curricula

    He had a forensic photography department that eventually grew into the Lausanne Institute of Police Science.
  • Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary

    An inmate had been confused with an actual convict William West because of anthropometry. They used fingerprints to defferentiate the two.
  • President Theodore Roosevelt establishes the FBI

  • Victor Balthazard publishes first hair study

    Victor Balthazard publishes first hair study
    He was also one of the first to assign a used bullet to a weapon.
  • Edmund Locard establishes first police crime lab

  • Victor Balthazard publishes first article on assigning bullets to weapons

  • Leone Lattes develop first antibody test for ABO blood groups

    He used this in casework so he could resolve a martial dispute.
  • International Association for Criminal Identification is organized in Oakland, California

  • Albert Schneider uses vacuum apparatus to collect trace evidence

  • Luke May

    Pioneered an analysis in weapon mark comparison
  • John Larson and Leonard Keeler design portable polygraph

  • Polygraph testing no longer meets federal acceptance

  • Meuller

    First investigator to suggest identifying amylase in saliva as a test for salivary stains.
  • Franz Josef Holzer

    Develops the absorption-inhibition ABO typing style that is commonly used in modern forensic labs.
  • M. Polonovski and M. Jayle identify haptoglobin

  • Vincent Hnizda

    First to analyze ignitable fluid using a vacuum distillation apparatus.
  • Frank Lundquist

    Develops the acid phosphatase test for semen.
  • Max Frei-Sulzer

    Max Frei-Sulzer
    Developed the tape lift method for collecting trace evidence.
  • R.F. Borkenstein incents the Brethalyzer

  • Lucas discusses testing for brand identity of gasoline

  • Culliford develops gel-based methods to test for isoenzymes in dried bloodstains

    Culliford develops gel-based methods to test for isoenzymes in dried bloodstains
  • The detection of gunshot residue is developed

  • The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer is adapted in the forensic lab

  • FBI introduces computerized fingerprint scans

  • Sir Alec Jeffreys developed first DNA profling test

  • DNA was used to identify and innocent suspect

  • Edward Blake first uses PCR DNA testing

    He did this to confirm that different autopsy samples were from the same person. This was accepted by the civil court, and was the first use of DNA testing in the United States.
  • Walsh Automation Inc.

    Developed automated imaging system, IBIS, for the comparison of marks left on fired bullets, cartridge cases, and shell casings. This was also developed for the U.S. market, collaborating with the ATF.
  • Roche Molecular Systems

    They released a set of five more DNA markers to add to the forensic DNA typing system.
  • FBI introduces computerized SEARCHES of the fingerprint database

  • Tennessee v. Ware

    Mitochondrial DNA typing is admitted for the first time in a United States court.
  • FBI DNA database is put into place

    This would enable cooperation in linking crimes.
  • A Memorandum of Understanding is signed by the FBI and the ATF

    This would implement the National Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System and allow paperless submission, storage, and search rights directly to the United States' national database, maintained by the FBI.
  • Quick DNA

    Quick DNA
    Technology enhances DNA profiling duration from 6-8 weeks, to 1-2 days.
  • Footwear detection

    Footwear detection
    Forensic Science Service in Britain creates online footwear coding/detection system to aid police in identifying footwear marks.
  • Facial sketches & mugshots

    Michigan State develops software that matches drawn sketches to mugshots stored in FBI databases.