The Evolution of Physics - by N. Bajaj (Northview Heights S. S.)

By nbajaj
  • Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei
    Falling Objects: discovered that both heavy and
    light objects fall toward Earth with the same acceleration if the effect of air resistance is eliminated. Galileo's Experiments Projectiles: An object falling straight down reaches the ground in the same amount of time as the one that also has lateral motion
  • Period: to

    Evolution of Science

  • Johannes Kepler

    Johannes Kepler
    1st and 2nd laws of planetary motion
  • Johannes Kepler

    Johannes Kepler
    3rd law of planetary motion
  • Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei
    Support for Copernicus' heliocentric theory
  • Newton introduces classical Physics to the world

    Newton introduces classical Physics to the world
    Newton proposed the three laws of motion in which objects moved because they were being pulled or pushed by FORCES. This lay the foundation for the Industrial Revolution: steam engines - locomotives and ships, bridges, dams skyscrapers. He then applied his theory of forces to the universe itself by proposing the new theory of gravity - he compared the falling of an apple with the falling of the moon. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXnhEDMUJt8
  • Robert Hooke

    Robert Hooke
    law of elasticity and springs
  • Christiaan Huygens

    Christiaan Huygens
    writes about wave theory of light
  • Halley's comet validates Newton's laws

    Halley's comet validates Newton's laws
    -Two decades later, all of London was terrified and amazed by a brilliant comet that was lighting up the night sky.
    -Newton carefully tracked the motion of the comet with a reflecting telescope one of his inventions) and found that its motion fit his equations perfectly if it was assumed to be in free fall and acted on by gravity.
    - With the amateur astronomer Edmund Halley, he could predict precisely when the comet later known as Halley's comet) would return - the first prediction of its kind.
  • Newton's notion on Absolute Space and Time

    Newton's notion on Absolute Space and Time
    According to Newton, the gravitational forces act INSTANTANEOUSLY, For example, if the sun were to suddenly disappear, the earth would be instantly thrown out of its orbit and would freeze up in deep space. Thus, it's possible to synchronize all watches so they beat uniformly anywhere in the universe. 1s on earth is the same length of time as 1s on Mars and Jupiter. SImilarly, 1m on Earth is the same length as 1m on Mars and Jupiter.
  • Isaac Newton - gravity

    Isaac Newton - gravity
    Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
    inverse square law and mass dependence of gravity
  • Isaac Newton - Light

    Isaac Newton - Light
    publishes corpuscular theory of light and colour
  • Edmund Halley

    Edmund Halley
    noticed that three previous comets are the same and predicts its return in 1758
  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin
    theory of electricity and lightning
  • Henry Cavendish

    Henry Cavendish
    measured the gravitational constant, G with a torsion balance
  • Thomas Young

    Thomas Young
    interference and wave description of light
  • Andre Ampere

    Andre Ampere
    force on an electric current in a magnetic field
  • Hans Christian Oersted

    Hans Christian Oersted
    an electric current deflects a magnetised needle
  • Michael Faraday

    Michael Faraday
    a moving magnet induces an electric current
    magnetic lines of force
    the electric dynamo
    the electric transformer
    laws of electrolysis
  • Heinrich Lenz

    Heinrich Lenz
    Law of electromagnetic forces
  • Christian Doppler

    Christian Doppler
    theory of Doppler Effect for sound and light
  • Gustav Kirchhoff

    Gustav Kirchhoff
    Kirchoff's laws of electrical networks
  • Maxwell introduces the theory of "Fields" to explain light

    Maxwell introduces the theory of "Fields" to explain light
    James Clerk Maxwell based on Michael Faraday's discovery of electricity and magnestism, developed a theory of light, not based on Newtonian forces, but on a new concept called "Fields". He demonstrated the field lines by sprinkling iron filings on a magnet on a sheet of paper - they rearranged themselves in a web like pattern. He explained the electric field lines in the same way - our hair stands on end when we touch a source of static electricity.
  • Maxwell determines that light is an EM wave

    Maxwell determines that light is an EM wave
    He know from Faraday's and others' work that a moving magnetic field can create an electric field, and vice versa. He combined the two together to create cyclical motion - with electric and magnetic fields continually feeding off each other and turning into each other - an electromagnetic wave. He measured the speed of this wave and it was the speed of light! He claimed that this WAS light. Unlike Newton's forces, which were instantaneous, these waves traveled at a definite speed: 'c'
  • Newton and Maxwell incompatible

    Newton and Maxwell incompatible
    Embarrasingly, any attempts to merge Newtonian mechanics with Maxwell's theory failed. Maxweel's theory confirmed that light was a wave and can travel through vacuum nothing) but this left open the question, what is waving? Newtonian physicits tried to answer this question by postulating that light consisted of waves vibrating in an invisible "aether", a stationary gas that filled up the universe.
  • Michelson–Morley experiment invalidates the "aether" theory

    Michelson–Morley experiment invalidates the "aether" theory
    Albert Michelson and Edward Morley performed an experiment to test the "aether" theory. They reasoned that the earth moves within the sea of aether, creating an "aether wind," and hence the speed of light should change, depending on the direction the earth took. In their experiment, a single beam of light is split into two distinct beams, each shot in diffreent directions at right angles to each other. They found that the speed of light was identical for all light beams, i.e no aether!
  • Marie Curie's work on radioactivity

    Marie Curie's work on radioactivity
    Marie Curie, a chemist, with the work of others on radioactivity, found that even a few ounces of radium could somehow light up a darkened room. She also showed that seemingly unlimited quantities of energy could come from an unknown source deep inside the atom., in defiance of the law of conservation of energy, which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed.
  • Max Planck discovers the quantum nature of energy

    Max Planck discovers the quantum nature of energy
    In 1900, Max Planck explains that energy is released by matter in discrete packets, which he calls quanta. The quantum theory explains why a heated object emits only light of specific colors, and this sets the stage for new theories about the structure of the atom.
    Planck discovers the quantum nature of energyhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dp00qu.html
  • Einstein - Special Relativity

    Einstein - Special Relativity
    Einstein publishes the special theory of relativityIn 1905, Albert Einstein shakes up the Newtonian view of the world when he publishes his special theory of relativity.
  • Rutherford Model of the Atom

    Rutherford Model of the Atom
    Rutherford's Model of the AtomIn 1911, Ernest Rutherford describes an atom as a nucleus, containing positively charged particles called protons, surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
  • Bohr Model of the Atom

    Bohr Model of the Atom
    Bohr Model of the AtomIn 1913, Niels Bohr states that electrons circle the nucleus at specific quantum levels, providing further explanation of Planck's theory.
  • Einstein announces the general theory of relativity

    Einstein announces the general theory of relativity
  • Hubble identifies a new galaxy

    Hubble identifies a new galaxy
    Hubble identifies a new galaxy
    In 1924, Edwin Hubble finds a Cepheid in the Andromeda Nebula, allowing him to measure the distance to the nebula. He finds it to be so far from earth that in fact Andromeda is a separate galaxy, and our Milky Way is only one small part of the universe.
  • Heisenberg states the uncertainty principle

    Heisenberg states the uncertainty principle
  • Big bang theory is introduced

    Big bang theory is introduced
    Big bang theory is introduced
    That same year, 1927, Georges LeMaitre develops a theory of the origins of the universe, which becomes knows as the "big bang."
  • Hubble finds proof that the universe is expanding

    Hubble finds proof that the universe is expanding
    Hubble finds proof that the universe is expandingIn 1929, Edwin Hubble finds that very distant stars appear to be moving away from earth at a speed proportional to their distance.
  • Lawrence invents the cyclotron

    Lawrence invents the cyclotron
    Lawrence invents the cyclotron In 1931, Ernest Lawrence invents the cyclotron, which allows physicists to study the behavior of atomic particles accelerated at very high speeds. This inaugurates an age of "big science."
  • Chadwick discovers the neutron

    Chadwick discovers the neutron
    Chadwick discovers the neutron In 1932, James Chadwick discovers that the nucleus of an atom is composed of protons and neutrally charged particles he calls neutrons.
  • Fermi creates controlled nuclear reaction

    Fermi creates controlled nuclear reaction
    Fermi creates controlled nuclear reaction In 1942, as part of the Manhattan Project working to develop an atomic bomb, Enrico Fermi creates the first controlled nuclear reaction by bombarding an atom of uranium with an accelerated neutron.
  • The first atomic bomb is detonated

    The first atomic bomb is detonated
    The first atomic bomb is detonated In 1945, an atomic bomb is first exploded in New Mexico and another is soon dropped on Japan.
  • Gell-Mann proposes the existence of "Quarks"

    Gell-Mann proposes the existence of "Quarks"
    In 1964, Murray Gell-Mann proposes that subatomic particles such as protons and neutrons are composed of even smaller particles, which he calls "quarks." The existence of quarks is proven ten years later.
  • Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation

    Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation
    Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation In 1965, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson hear an annoying hiss in their satellite antenna, which they identify as cosmic microwave radiation left over from the big bang.
  • Jocelyn Bell finds a message from a distant star, the first identified pulsar in the universe

    Jocelyn Bell finds a message from a distant star, the first identified pulsar in the universe
    Bell and Hewish discover pulsars On the Edge: Little Green Men In 1967, Jocelyn Bell finds a message from a distant star, the first identified pulsar in the universe
  • Weinberg continues to find a unified field theory

    Weinberg continues to find a unified field theory
    In 1967, Steven Weinberg continues the search to replace the laws of Newton with new explanations that explain the behavior of all forces, including those at the subatomic level.
  • Cosmic string theory introduced

    Cosmic string theory introduced
    In 1976, Thomas Kibble suggests that the uneven distribution of matter in the universe can be explained by the existence of cosmic strings formed shortly after the big bang.
  • Hubble Space Telescope launched

    Hubble Space Telescope launched
    With the aid of radio telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, astronomers can now see the birth of galaxies, find planets orbiting distant stars, and probe 15 billion light years to the edge of the known (and expanding) universe. We have identified and continue to study numerous cosmic phenomena such as pulsars, quasars, black holes, and dark matter. At the other extreme, a "zoo" of subatomic particles has been studied, and much of their behavior is understood. But no