Galileo, Newton

By wub_wub
  • Period: Jan 1, 1563 to

    Galileo, Newton

  • Feb 15, 1564

    Galileo is born

    Galileo is born to Vencenzo Galilei, a musician.
  • Jan 1, 1574

    Galileo's family moves

    Galileo's family moves to Florence, and he starts to attend the monastery of Vallombrosa.
  • Jan 1, 1581

    Galileo and the lamp

    He enters the University of Pisa to study medicine. As the story goes, Galileo was in the cathedral at Vallombrosa when he observed a lamp hanging from the ceiling swaying with perfect rhythm. He was fascinated that the lamp took the same amount of time to swing no matter how large the range of swing. He later would apply his theories of pendulums to clocks.
  • Math, and science

    Galileo, fascinated by mathematics and geometry, starts taking classes from Ostilio Ricci, a teacher in the Tuscan court.
  • Galileo broke

    Galileo, not completing his degree, is forced to leave the University because of lack of funds. He returns to Pisa.
  • hydrostatic balance

    He publishes an essay on the hydrostatic balance, a device to measure the mass of objects.
  • awards for papers

    He publishes a paper on the center of gravity in solids and is awarded a position as lecturer at the University of Pisa.
  • Motion studies

    Galileo works on his theory of motion. Aristotle had said that bodies of different weights fall at different rates, but Galileo did not believe this. he worked on this from 1589-1592
  • University chairman

    Galileo applies and is awarded the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua, where he remained until 1610. Padua is where Galileo did the majority of his work.
  • letter

    Galileo writes a letter to Johannes Kepler supporting his heliocentric universe theory over that of Aristotle. Galileo would have published, but he was afraid of ridicule.
  • theories

    Galileo publishes his theories, now called the theory of uniform acceleration. He proved that all bodies, regardless of their weight, fall at an equal rate, in the absence of friction. Also in this paper he stated that a ball thrown in the air follows a parabolic path.
  • Telescope

    Galileo learns of the recent invention, the telescope. He returned to Padua and is able to improve the magnification of the telescope he bought to 32 powers. he starts some observations of the universe
  • The universe

    Galileo makes many different observations about the solar system, using his new telescope.
    The moon is an irregular, rough body, not smooth as scientists thought.
    The Milky Way is composed of many stars.
    Jupiter has many small satellites that he named, "Sidera Medicea," after his favorite pupil.
    He made observations about Saturn, sunspots, and the phases of Venus.
    He publishes the results in the 1610 book, "Sidereus Nuncius." ("The Starry Messenger")
  • supporting letters

    After being so warmly accepted at Rome, Galileo writes three letters to formally take his position on the heliocentric theory of the universe. His main reason for believing Kepler and Copernicus were his observations of sunspots moving around the sun.
  • banned your pricipals are!

    The Catholic Church formally declares the writings of Galileo banned, and warns Galileo not to "hold or defend his doctrines."
  • new book

    Galileo writes his "Assayer..." in which he debates the difference between primary properties, (measurable, quantative) and other properties (smell) and writes his famous quote, "The Book of Nature is written with Mathematical characters."
  • decree

    He again travels to Rome hoping to appeal the 1616 decree. The Pope does not repeal the decree, but he does allow Galileo to write on both sides of the issue, noncomentally, and equally supportive of both sides of the issue, and without making any definite conclusions.
  • Dialogo

    Galileo publishes his great work, Dialogo sopra I due massimi sistemi del mondo, tolemaico e copernicano (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican) IN compliance with the Pope, the work is set as a conversation between two men discussing the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems.
  • trials

    The Pope, infuriated at the content of "Dialogo," places him on trial for one thing after another.
  • old age trial

    Galileo is eventually placed on trial and at his old age, is forced to make the journey to Rome. He is under suspicion of "vehement suspicion of heresy," but is convicted of holding and teaching the Copernican belief. He is placed under house arrest for eight years until his death.
  • yet another book

    Despite his house arrest Galileo publishes Discorsi e dimostrazioni mathematiche intorno a due nuove scienze attenenti alla meccanica (Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences, a work about the principles of mechanics.
  • new discovery

    Galileo makes the discovery, months before he went completely blind, that the moon makes monthly wobbles on its axis, called liberations.
  • Death

    Galileo Galilei dies from a long illness.
  • Birth

    Isaac Newton (1642-1727) is born at Woolsthorpe prematurely and posthumously. His survival was in question for some time, and by tradition Newton was small enough to fit into a small 'quart pot'.
  • School

    Newton attends Grammar School at nearby Grantham, aged 12; Newton lives with the Apothecary Mr Clarke near the George Inn.
  • return

    Newton is recalled by his mother from Grantham to Woolsthorpe.
  • talent

    Newton returns to Grantham school and boards with the Headmaster, John Stokes, who appears to have recognized talent in the young Newton.
  • book

    Newton is elected scholar; he begins to make mathematical entries in his 'Waste Book'.
  • degree

    Newton takes his Bachelor's Degree
  • master's degree

    Newton is granted Master's Degree, Cambridge.
  • reflecting telescope

    Newton describes his reflecting telescope in a letter to Henry Oldenburg, first Secretary of the Royal Society.
  • optical lectures

    Newton gives the first of his Optical Lectures.
  • another paper

    Newton writes De methodis; in December he sends his reflecting ('Newtonian') telescope to Royal Society.
  • Newton's mother dies

    Newton's mother, Hannah, is buried at Woolsthorpe, where Newton spends much of the year.
  • comet

    Newton observes the Comet until March and corresponds with John Flamsteed (1646-1719) on the topic.
  • Hally's comet

    Newton observes 'Halley's' comet.
  • Famous meeting

    famous 'Coffee House' meetings between Halley, Hooke, and Christopher Wren concerning the question of the motion of the earth and the problem of the inverse square relation.
  • principa

    Newton presents his Principia, Book I to the Royal Society.
  • opticks the book

    Newton publishes the first edition of his Opticks.
  • Opticks II

    Newton publishes second English edition of Opticks with eight queries.
  • Principa III

    Newton publishes third edition of Principia.
  • last metting

    Newton attends his last metting with the Royal society
  • Death

    Isaac Newton dies at Kensington between 1:00 and 2:00am.