Giants of science

  • Apr 15, 1452

    Leonardo Da Vinci

    Leonardo Da Vinci
    Leonardo Da Vinci was known as a painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer. He dissected 30 human bodies and made anatomical drawings. His drawings were the most accurate compared to anything that was drawn before. He also studied light and the movement of water.
  • Feb 19, 1473


    The great scientist was commonly known as Copernicus, his latinized name but his real name is Niklas Kopernik. As an astronomer he theorized that the sun was in the middle of planets, including Earth and they were orbiting around it. It was called the heliocentric theory.
  • Dec 27, 1571

    Johannes Kepler

    Johannes Kepler
    Johannes Kepler was Tycho Brahe's assistant. When Tycho died he handed his astronomical work to Kepler to prove Copernicus's theory wrong. But the findings he made was not match Tycho and Copernicus work. Kepler found, although the Earth was circling around the sun, but it wasn't going around in a perfect circle rather than in extended circular paths called ellipses.
  • John Ray

    John Ray
    John Ray was a naturalist and made the most outstanding classifications. In 1660, he made a botanist catalogue call 'Plants Growing in the Neighborhood of Cambridge' and between 1686 and 1704 he wrote a book called 'A General Account of Plants', it had 1700 different types of plant descriptions. He classified plants according to their fruits, leaves and flowers.
  • Isaac Newton

    Isaac Newton
    Isaac Newton was mostly famous for his work gravity. His discovery of calculus led to the development of more advanced methods of solving mathematical problems. In his work in optics he studied white light and discovered the color 'spectrum'
  • Benjamin Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin
    Benjamin Franklin proved that lighting was a form of electricity. He flew a kite with a metal key attached to the string.And sparks flew from the key. "It also showed that lightning is caused by the discharge of that electricity in a form of a very powerful spark." in the same year he attached the first electricity conductor to his house. Thus carried the electricity into the ground. This resulted in his house being undamaged.
  • James Hutton

    James Hutton
    John Hutton theorized that the Earth has been changing slowly, over million of years and it is still doing so. He said that the Earth's crust was first eroded by natural forces like the wind, water, earthquakes and volcanoes. A layer was formed out of the erosion. Lastly, the heat in the middle of the earth caused rocks to move and thus formed continents. His theory is known as the 'Plutonist Theory.
  • Joseph Black

    Joseph Black
    Joseph is the founder carbon dioxide. He discovered when you heat a substance called magnesium carbonate it loses weight. He figured that the reason the substance was losing is that it releases a gas while its burning. He named the gas "fixed Air" but today its called carbon dioxide
  • Joseph Priestly

    Joseph Priestly
    Joseph Priestly, the scientist who heated a chemical called mercuric oxide, and discovered oxygen gas. He placed a lighted candle in the oxygen gas and saw afterwards that it shined very brightly. At that time many scientists believed that when something burned it released a substance called Phlogiston (from phlox, the Greek for "Flame"). Priestley called his gas "dephlogisticated air" because to him it seemed to have lost phlogiston but he had discovered what we know today ' Oxygen'
  • Abraham Werner

    Abraham Werner
    Abraham Werner theorized that once the Earth was totally covered with water, caused by the flood described in the bible. When the water receded, minerals in the water had created layers of rock. This was known as the 'Neptunist theory'
  • Edward Jenner

    Edward Jenner
    Edward Jenner vaccine for smallpox. At the time people were being affected with smallpox. Over the years a time came where he learned that people who were affected with another disease called cowpox, were immune/ protected form smallpox. Jenner scratch cowpox into the skin of a healthy boy, after two months he then scratched smallpox into the boy. In result the boy was immune to smallpox and the process was named vaccination.
  • Charles Darwin

    Charles Darwin
    Charles Darwin is best known for his studies of specimens around the globe that led him to formulate his theory of evolution and his views on the process of natural selection. In 1859, he published the book On the Origin of Species
  • Ada Countess

    Ada Countess
    Ada Countess, she was the first computer programmer. She worked as the designer of arithmetical operations for, Charles Babbage's mathematician, calculating machines. Her work and ideas on the machines were published in 1843. But women at the time could publish under their own names so she signed her work with here initials.
  • Louis Pasteur

    Louis Pasteur
    At the University of Lille, Louis Pasteur was asked to find out why wine and alcohol turned sour at times. He discovered germs called bacteria was responsible and that heating the liquid up to a certain temperature can kill the bacteria and the liquid will be left unchanged. This process was named "Pasteurization."
  • Sigmund Freud

    Sigmund Freud
    Sigmund Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind, especially involving the mechanism of repression; his redefinition of sexual desire as mobile and directed towards a wide variety of objects etc. He developed the psychoanalytic theory of personality development, which argued that personality is formed through conflicts among three fundamental structures of the human mind: the id, ego, and superego.
  • Marie Curie

    Marie Curie
    Marie Curie was known for the discoveries of radioactive decay, polonium and radium. She is the first women to win a Nobel Prize, she is the only person and only woman to win twice and the only person to win in two sciences
  • Albert Einstein

    Albert Einstein
    Albert Eistein said large objects cause space to bend in the same way that putting a tennis ball on a thin sheet would cause the sheet to bend.
    Secondly, it's impossible to determine if you're moving unless you can look at another object. Also shows measurements of distance and time depend on how fast you are travelling. This means that if someone your age goes into space for ten years and travels millions of miles that person will come back looking two years younger than you
  • Edwin Hubble

    Edwin Hubble
    Edwin Hubble examined a galaxy called Andromeda Spiral. At the time people and other scientists believe that the milky way made up the universe. In Hubble's examination he found that there were stars at the edge of the Andromeda Spiral. He estimated that these stars were far beyond the milky way. This proved that the Andromeda Spiral was another galaxy. Later on Hubble and others discovered more galaxies.
  • Georges Lemaitre

    Georges Lemaitre
    Georges Lemaitre used Einstein's theory of "Relativity" and theorized that the universe was first a small atom which exploded, shooting hot gases in all directions. This meant that the universe was expanding and this was called the "Big Bang Theory."
  • Francis Crick

    Francis Crick
    Francis Crick researched the DNA structure with James Watson. They made a crucial discovery of the DNA structure and how it transmits genetic information from one generation to the next. They built a scale model of the DNA structure using plastic balls and wire. The structure is shaped like a double helix (two rope ladders twisted). It showed how the DNA molecule divides to form two identical copies of itself.
  • Hermann Bondi

    Hermann Bondi
    Hermann Bondi theorized, "new galaxies form in the middle of the expanding universe to replace those moving outward." What he basically meant was the universe is going to look the same forever. This was known as the "Steady State Theory." However when two astronomers picked up a small radio noise in Space it contradicted Bondi's work. They thought the sound to be an echo of the Big Bang.