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History of Astronomy

  • 384 BCE


    Aristotle believed that the earth was the center of the universe and everything. He also believed that stars and planets were round like a sphere. Aristotle is believed to be one of the best thinkers in ethics, politics, and psychology.
  • 100 BCE


    Ptolemy was a mathematician, geographer, and an astronomer. He had lots of writings that represented culminating achievement of Greco-Roman Science. Such as one his writings called Ptolemaic System. It was about the earth being centered in the universe.
  • 1473


    Copernicus proposed the idea that earth revolves around the sun. He was not completely correct but was on a good track. Other scientists followed on his idea and proved the earth revolves around the sun.
  • 1546

    Tycho Brahe

    Tycho Brahe
    Tycho Brahe was a Danish astronomer who worked on creating tools and instruments to measure and find and fix the position of stars. He helped lead for future discoveries, he had the most accurate discoveries before the telescope.He fixed and worked on 777 stars.
  • 1564


    Galileo was was from Italy and was a philosopher, mathematician, and an astronomer. He helped form the scientific method, he made parobolic trajectories, the law of falling bodies, and inertia.
  • 1570

    Hans Lippershey

    Hans Lippershey
    Lippershey got some credit for inventing the telescope. His invention was made in 1608 in United Netherlands. He actually applied for a 30 year patent for his instrument. He called it the "looker" not the telescope.
  • 1571

    Johannes Kepler

    Johannes Kepler
    Kepler is most known for his three laws of planetary motion. These three laws are about astronomy. Kepler also was an astronomer, astrologer, and a mathematician from Germany.
  • Giovanni Cassini

    Giovanni Cassini
    Cassini had three discoveries that are known now. Cassini discovered four satellites on the planet Saturn. He also noticed the division of the rings around Saturn. He was the first family member of his family to start creating a topographic of France.
  • Sir Isaac Newton

    Sir Isaac Newton
    Isaac Newton was physicist, theologian, mathematician, astronomer, and an author. One of his many inventions was the reflecting telescope. The reflecting telescope was made for when the light can't travel through something it will bounce back.
  • Difference between refracting and reflecting telescopes

    Difference between refracting and reflecting telescopes
    The refracting telescope has two mirrors in the scope instead of two lenses. The reflecting telescope is reflected off of a curved mirror in the tube. If there is light it bounces back and doesn't go through the light.
  • William Herschel

    William Herschel
    William Herschel definitely has one the bigger inventions out there. His invention is located in Spain in an observatory. This telescope has a 13 ft. 9 in. diameter. This telescope is one of the productive telescope of its "species" in the world.
  • Percival Lowell

    Percival Lowell
    Percival Lowell was from Boston and was an American astronomer. Lowell predicted the existence that there was a planet behind the orbit of Neptune. He initiated that they do a search which ended up being the discovery of Pluto.
  • Ejnar Hertzsprung

    Ejnar Hertzsprung
    Hertzsprung was a Danish astronomer who classified stars for a living. He classified stars, he related the color to the absolute brightness. In 1913 Hertzsprung created a scale called the luminosity scale.
  • Albert Einstein

    Albert Einstein
    Einstein was a German boy, he was a theoretical physicist. He made a refrigerator that was ran by a heat source. This fridge is not used today but he helped make lead somewhere. He also got this invention patented.
  • Edwin Hubble

    Edwin Hubble
    Edwin Hubble was an astronomer who was named after the "Hubble Space Telescope." He first served in World War 1 until he found his passion for the stars. He began the theory of the Big Bang Theory.
  • Karl Jansky

    Karl Jansky
    Karl Janksy was a physicist and joined the Bell Lab Telephone Labs. He was working with short waves and built and antenna. This helped find out many things and help people be safer at the time.
  • Sputnik

    Sputnik was the first person to ever make a satellite. They launched up in the air on Oct. 4, 1954 calling it "Sputnik 1". After his discovery many people starting working on improved satellites.
  • Yuri Gagarin

    Yuri Gagarin
    Yuri Gagarin was a cosmonaut and a soviet pilot. Gagarin was the first person to explore outer space in the world. He went into outer space with a Vostok Spacecraft and he came down alive. When he blasted off there wasn't even a countdown he just went.
  • John Glenn

    John Glenn
    John Glenn was one of the seven to be chosen by NASA to go into space. They were called the "Friendship 7 mission", he became the first American to orbit around the Earth. He became the 5th person and the 3rd American to fly into space.
  • Neil Armstrong

    Neil Armstrong
    Neil Armstrong was a military pilot, an astronaut, and an educator. Neil Armstrong was the first person to ever step foot on the moon. He also piloted the spacecraft called Apollo 11, which was the first lunar mission.
  • The Apollo Program

    The Apollo Program
    The Apollo Program was made to land humans on the moon and get them safely back to earth. There were 7 different missions. 11,12,13,14,15,16, and 17, 6 of these missions completed their 2 of them didn't. There was 5 missions that were for orbiting the earth and to bring back lunar data. 1,7,8,9,10 7 and 9 did not bring back lunar data but the rest succeeded.
  • The First Space Shuttle Flight

    The First Space Shuttle Flight
    The First Space Shuttle Flight was on April 12, 1981. There were around 50 astronauts throughout the whole program. The last flight was in 2011 and there was 50 flights all together.
  • Mars Pathfinder Expedition

    Mars Pathfinder Expedition
    This mission lasted about 8 months from December-July. The Mission completely ended in September of 1997. The rover and the lander they had carried scientific tools to make many observations.
  • Cassini Orbiter

    Cassini Orbiter
    The Cassini Orbiter also went with the Huygens Probe. The Cassini Orbiter had 12 instruments and the Huygens had 6 instruments. They first went to Saturn and its moons, they were ready for 27 science investigations. This launch was a very ambitious one of the most ambitious missions ever launched to go into space.