Jackson's Scientific Revolution Unit Timeline

  • Jan 1, 1346

    Black Death Rages, 1346

    Black Death Rages, 1346
    From the ashes of disaster come the roses of success. Despite upwards of 25 million killed gruesomely by the plague in just a few years, the survivors benefit from a wealth of opportunity that, in part, contributes to the creation of a financially successful "middle class." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consequences_of_the_Black_Death
  • Period: 1346 to

    European Paradigm Shift

    Black Death to Revolution
  • Jan 1, 1439

    Printing Press (Gutenberg, 1439)

    Printing Press (Gutenberg, 1439)
    Johannes Gutenberg invents Europe's version of the first printing press, and it changes e-v-e-r-y-t-h-i-n-g. https://www.psprint.com/resources/printing-press/
  • May 29, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    Fall of Constantinople
    The fall of Constantinople was arguably key to the revival of Greco-Roman studies that led to Renaissance humanism. Fleeing to Western Europe were grammarians, humanists, poets, writers, printers, lecturers, musicians, astronomers, architects, academics, artists, scribes, philosophers, scientists, politicians and theologians who brought preserved and accumulated knowledge of their own (Greek) civilization. http://europeanhistory.about.com/od/therenaissance/a/causesrenaissance.htm
  • Period: 1473 to 1543

    Astro: Copernicus (1473-1543)

    Lifespan of Johannes Copernicus, the Polish Catholic priest and astronomer who concludes Heliocentric theory, reversing the Geocentric theory favored for 2,000 years by Aristotle, Ptolemy, and the Catholic Church.
  • Period: 1514 to 1564

    Med: Vesalius (1514-1564)

    Lifespan of Andrea Vesalius, the Flemish physician, dubbed the "Father of Modern Anatomy" because he proved poor ancient-days Galen way wrong on some stuff. Vesalius got to dissect real human corpses.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    On Revolutions of Celestial Spheres (Copernicus, 1792)

    On Revolutions of Celestial Spheres (Copernicus, 1792)
  • Jan 1, 1543

    On the Fabric of the Human Body (Vesalius, 1543)

    On the Fabric of the Human Body (Vesalius, 1543)
    Andrea Vesalius publishes On the Fabric of the Human Body, which has such ground-breaking (and creepy-interesting) anatomical illustrations and information that Vesalius single-handedly makes surgery and anatomy as important as any other branch of medicine--and not just something the barber and butcher should be doing any more. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_humani_corporis_fabrica
  • Period: 1544 to

    Method: Gilbert (1544-1603)

    Lifespan of William Gilbert, the English doctor and physicist dubbed the "Father of Magnetism" because he hella-studied magnetism and static electricity. Studied so well, in fact, that it took 300 years before anything new about magnets was figured out. Gilbert's obsession with documenting his manymanymany observations and experiments that Galileo credits Gilbert for inventing the Scientific Method.
  • Period: 1546 to

    Astro: Brahe (1546-1601)

    Life span of Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who knew the only way to understand the stars was to collect his own data--so he did, like a freak, for 30 years, in his own Uraniborg (Heaven's Castle), dubbed the "Disneyland of Astronomy" because it was so cool and high tech for the time. As the "first competent mind in modern astronomy to feel ardently the passion for exact empirical facts," his observations were 5x more accurate than the best available observations at the time.
  • Period: 1561 to

    Method: Bacon (1561-1626)

    Lifespan of Sir Francis Bacon, the English philosopher, politician, scientist, author (and more) dubbed the "Father of Empiricism" because he insisted that right conclusions can only come from experience and experimentation (not from gut feelings or because your mommy or priest said it was so). He is one of the three SciRev guys credited for inventing the Scientific Method.
  • Period: 1564 to

    Astro: Galileo (1564-1642)

    Lifespan of Galileo Galilei, the Italian math professor and devout Catholic who supported Copernicus's theory to the point of getting in trouble with the Church over it--and who proved the moon and planets were made of matter and not divine aether/firmament stuff.
  • Period: 1571 to

    Astro: Kepler (1571-1630)

    Lifespan of Johannes Kepler, the German astronomer and mathematician who improved Copernicus's Heliocentric theory with the correction that planets revolve around the sun in elliptical rotations (not perfectly spherical rotations).
  • Period: 1578 to

    Med: Harvey (1578-1657)

    Lifespan for William Harvey, the English doctor who first figured out how the heart participates in blood circulation. Also first to suggest that humans/mammals reproduce with sperm and egg, even though it took 200 years before anyone actually saw an embryo egg. Because, I guess, ew! Lady Parts!
  • Period: to

    Enlight: Hobbes (1588-1679)

    Lifespan of Thomas Hobbes, the English philosopher who promoted absolute monarchy (a leviathan ruler) as the ideal government for naturally selfish, wicked humans. Published prolifically, including Leviathan. See Locke and Rousseau for SIMs and DIFFs.
  • Period: to

    Method: Descartes (1596-1650)

    Lifespan of Rene Descartes, the French mathematician and philosopher, dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy" because he doubted knowing *anything* unless it could be proven by logic and math. "I think, therefore I am." He is one of the three SciRev guys credited for inventing the Scientific Method, and he also linked algebra to geometry, paving the way for calculus.
  • Brahe's Math Data

    Brahe's Math Data
    Brahe's incredible 30-years-of-meticulously-observed-and-recorded mathematical star data is "published" (stolen by Kepler) when Brahe dies from not peeing.
  • Period: to

    Earth: Torricelli (1608-1647)

    Lifespan of Evangelista Torricelli, the Italian mathematician and physicist, who invents the barometer, which measures atmospheric pressure, helping weatherman to determine whether the weather will be "torrid" or "chilly." Boom.
  • Astronomia Nova (Kepler, 1609)

    Astronomia Nova (Kepler, 1609)
    Kepler publishes Astronomia Nova (1609) about his discovery of elliptical rotation of planets around the Sun. http://www.keplersdiscovery.com/AstronomiaNova.html
  • Starry Messenger (Galileo, 1609)

    Starry Messenger (Galileo, 1609)
    Galileo publishes Starry Messenger, which contradicts ancient ideas about "perfect heavens," geocentricism (earth in the center of the universe), the universe being static and limited in size. https://people.rit.edu/wlrgsh/Galileo.pdf
  • Compound Microscope (Jansen...maybe, 1600s)

    Compound Microscope (Jansen...maybe, 1600s)
    The first compound microscope is invented, maybe by Zacharias Jansen, a Dutch spectacle-maker. Hard to tell because eyeglass making was a very competitive, and thus secret, business. All those people reading by candlelight (thank you, printing press!) gave the spectacle makers a lot of business. Other claims include possibly Cornelis Drebber from the Netherlands (1620s) or Hans Lippershey (who obtained the first telescope patent) or Galileo in 1625.
  • Period: to

    Earth: Boyle (1627-1691)

    Lifespan of Robert Boyle, the Ango-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor, dubbed the "Father of Modern Chemistry" because he discovered that air has weight, exerts pressure, and is made up of tiny particles. He invented Boyle's Law.
  • On the Motion of the Heart and Blood (Harvey, 1628)

    On the Motion of the Heart and Blood (Harvey, 1628)
    William Harvey publishes On the Motion of the Heart and Blood (De Motu Cordis) detailing his observations about how the heart participates in blood circulation. http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/exhibns/month/june2007.html
  • Dialougue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Galileo, 1632)

    Dialougue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Galileo, 1632)
    Galileo publishes a clever book describing an imaginary conversation between Ptolemy (geocentric) and Copernicus (heliocentric), making Ptolemy look like a fool--and thus getting in bigly trouble with the Church for taking a side when they told him not to. The Inquisition forces him to take it back (recant) and then puts him on house arrest for the rest of his life. Aw, Galileo! http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/galileo/dialogue.html
  • Period: to

    Enlight: Locke (1632-1704)

    Lifespan of John Locke, the English philosopher and physician, dubbed the “Father of Liberalism,” who promoted positive views of humanity: human nature is basically good; people can learn from experience and improve; people can reason through and govern society’s and their own affairs; all people are born free and equal with natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Locke’s ideal government is representative democracy at the consent of the people. See Hobbes and Rousseau for SIMs and DIFFs.
  • Meditations on First Philosophy (Descartes, 1641)

    Meditations on First Philosophy (Descartes, 1641)
    Rene Descartes publishes Meditations on First Philosophy--still today the most widely read philosophy textbook. Although he worked on the book for over two years, Descartes wrote as if he had meditated for six day, first discarding all belief in things not absolutely certain, and then trying to establish what can be known for sure using reason, experience, and experimentation. He is credited as a founder of the Scientific Method. http://selfpace.uconn.edu/class/percep/DescartesMeditations.pdf
  • Period: to

    Earth: Newton (1643-1727)

    Lifespan of Sir Isaac Newton, the English mathematician and physicist who discovered the Law of Gravity (at only 23 years old!), that white light is composed of all the colors, and that he could make a much more power and smaller "reflecting" telescope. And whether it's humble or humblebrag: "If I have been able to see so far, it is only because I stood on the shoulders of giants."
  • Barometer

    Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer, which measure atmospheric pressure, which weather reporters use to predict what the temperature and precipitation will probably be in the short-term.
  • Leviathan (Hobbes, 1651)

    Leviathan (Hobbes, 1651)
    Thomas Hobbes publishes Leviathan to explain why we need zero-tolerance autocratic rulers who demand obedience to protect us from ourselves. Hobbes insisted that life outside society would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short"; since he lived til he was 91, he must have been on to something! http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/hobbes/Leviathan.pdf
  • Sceptical Chymist (Boyle, 1661)

    Sceptical Chymist (Boyle, 1661)
    Robert Boyle publishes The Sceptical Chymist in the form of a dialogue to present Boyle's hypothesis that matter consisted of atoms and clusters of atoms in motion and that every phenomenon was the result of collisions of particles in motion. He publishes manymany other works too. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22914/22914-h/22914-h.htm
  • Principia (Newton, 1687)

    Principia (Newton, 1687)
    Newton publishes Mathematical Principles of the Natural Philosophy, presenting his law of gravity and the three laws of motion. Rock star stuff, truly, for a guy with rock star hair. https://docs.lib.noaa.gov/rescue/Rarebook_treasures/QA803A451846.PDF
  • Two Treatises (Locke, 1689)

    Two Treatises (Locke, 1689)
    John Locke publishes Two Treatises anonymously in 1689. The First Treatise attacks patriarchalism and the Second Treatise outlines Locke's ideas for a more civilized society based on natural rights (life, liberty, possessions) and contract theory. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/locke-the-works-of-john-locke-vol-4-economic-writings-and-two-treatises-of-government
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    Enlight: Montesquieu (1689-1755)

    Lifespan of Baron de Montesquieu, the French writer who promoted separation of powers in government because power corrupts.
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    Enlight: Voltaire (1694-1778)

    Lifespan of Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet), the French philosopher, writer, and witty salon guest, who wrote over 70 books, including the satirical Candide. He used his quill as a deadly weapon in a thinker’s war against the clergy, government, and aristocracy, fighting for reason over superstition, freedom of speech, religious tolerance, and justice. He was imprisoned twice and even kicked out of France for a bit for his passionate views.
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    Enlight: Hume (1711-1776)

    Lifespan of David Hume, a kind and witty Scottish philosopher and author, who said that because Man is slave to his passions, we must teach the art of common decency because following difficult arguments doesn't make you a nice person. He opposed arguing religion because it’s not rational to believe in god nor to argue faith with those who do. Be tolerant instead. Hume doubted "personal identity"—that he could ever really catch himself without a perception of himself getting in the way.
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    Enlight: Rousseau (1712-1778)

    Lifespan of Jean Jacques Rousseau, the Swiss essay writer who championed individual freedom and direct democracy, formed freely by the people for the people. More radical than Locke, Man is not only born free and equal, but all titles of nobility should be abolished. Also, civilization sucks because it corrupts Man’s natural goodness. Just say no to reason, science, and art if you’re looking to really improve yourself. Nature is where it’s at. See Hobbes and Locke for SIMs and DIFFs.
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    Enlight: Smith (1723-1790)

    Lifespan of Adam Smith, the Scottish economist, philosopher, and author who wanted to know how capitalism could be more humane and meaningful. He argued against “mercantilism” and for laissez-faire policies that trusted the “invisible hand” of the free market to regulate itself via competition, supply and demand, and self-interest. Properly developed, capitalism should make money from goods and services that deliver true fulfillment and honor the dignity of the workers who produce them.
  • Fahrenheit-Celsius Scales (1724&1742)

    Fahrenheit-Celsius Scales (1724&1742)
    Fahrenheit and Celsius invent two different scales for measuring what the temperature *is* using a thermometer (as opposed to the barometer, which measures what the temperature will probably become).
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    Enlight: Kant (1724-1804)

    Lifespan of Immanuel Kant, the German philosopher, writer, and friendly party boy, who defined “enlightment” as daring to know!--for ourselves--instead of just blindly following holy books and royal orders just because. Also, since he pessimistically knew people don't act right on their own, he created a secular version of religion's golden rule (the "Categorical Imperative") even though he didn't like religion otherwise.
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    Enlight: Beccaria (1738-1794)

    Lifespan of Cesare Beccaria, the Italian jurist, politician, and philosopher, dubbed the “Father of Criminal Justice” because he promoted criminal justice reform. No to suspect-witness torturing, wonky trial proceedings, arbitrary-cruel punishments, and capital punishment. Yes to speedy dependable trials, punishments that “fit” the crime, and making laws that preserve social order instead of avenging crimes.
  • On the Spirit of Laws (Montesquieu, 1748)

    On the Spirit of Laws (Montesquieu, 1748)
    Baron de Montesquieu publishes On the Spirit of Laws explaining his ideas about separation of powers (executive, legislative, and judicial branches) and how power should be a check to power (checks and balances). Major influence on the U.S. Constitution. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/montesquieu-complete-works-vol-1-the-spirit-of-laws
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    Med: Jenner (1749-1823)

    Lifespan of Edward Jenner, the British physician, dubbed the "Father of Immunology" because he introduced a vaccine for smallpox using cowpox germs. China (of course) created inoculation centuries before, but Jenner's breakthrough was a first for Europe.
  • Candide (Voltaire, 1759)

    Candide (Voltaire, 1759)
    Voltaire writes Candide, a French satire that enjoys success and scandal. Although widely banned for blasphemy, political sedition and intellectual hostility, its sharp wit and insightful portrayal of the human condition, has inspired many to mimic and adapt it. Today, Candide is recognized as Voltaire's masterwork, is among the most frequently taught works of French literature, and makes top 100 lists. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/voltaire-the-works-of-voltaire-vol-i-candide
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    Enlight: Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)

    Lifespan of Mary Wollstonecraft, an English writer, philosopher, and feminist (before that label existed) who promoted education for women so humanity would progress further with female usefulness and virtue. She urged women to enter male-dominated fields like medicine, politics, business. She had no regard for marriage because it was as imbalanced as the unequal power between monarch and subjects. “Society will not be whole until the last king is strangled with the guts of the last priest.”
  • The Social Contract (Rousseau, 1762)

    The Social Contract (Rousseau, 1762)
    Rousseau published The Social Contract to explain his views about direct democracy and Man’s inherent freedom and quality. Major influence on the French Revolution. http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/rousseau1762.pdf
  • On Crimes and Punishments (Beccaria, 1764)

    On Crimes and Punishments (Beccaria, 1764)
    Cesare Beccaria publishes On Crimes and Punishments, condeming torture and the death penalty, and was a founding work on justice within the field of criminology. His works had a profound influence on the Founding Fathers of the United States. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/beccaria-an-essay-on-crimes-and-punishments
  • American Revolution (1775)

    American Revolution (1775)
    Revolution of British colonists in America against the British crown.
  • Wealth of Nations (Smith, 1776)

    Wealth of Nations (Smith, 1776)
    Offers one of the world's first collected descriptions of what builds nations' wealth.
    Read the book: https://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWN.html?chapter_num=3#nn7
  • French Revolution (1789)

    French Revolution (1789)
    Civil war breaks out in France, the peasants against an out-of-control and clueless monarchy.
  • Vindication of the Rights of Woman (Wollstonecraft, 1792)

    Vindication of the Rights of Woman (Wollstonecraft, 1792)
    Mary Wollstonecraft publishes Vindication of the Rights of Woman, one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy, to argue that women's education is essential because women are essential to the nation because they educate its children. And, instead of viewing women as ornaments to society or property to be traded in marriage, women are human beings deserving of the same fundamental rights as men. http://www.bartleby.com/144/
  • Inquiry...Vaccinæ (Jenner, 1798)

    Inquiry...Vaccinæ (Jenner, 1798)
    Edward Jenner publishes An Inquiry Into the Causes and Effects of the Variolæ Vaccinæ, Or Cow-Pox based on 23 cases of using his created-from-cowpox vaccine to inoculate against smallpox. In 1840, after much deliberation, the medical establishment accepted Jenner's vaccine and banned other methods. http://www.bartleby.com/38/4/1.html