Manuscrito de la edad media 856a4e11 1200x630

Cronograma: La Edad Media y la Edad Moderna

  • Period: 427 BCE to


    Idealism is a philosophical doctrine that posits reality is essentially of a mental or spiritual nature. It is characterized by asserting the primacy of the mind in the creation or definition of reality, rejecting the existence of an independent reality. The importance of ideas and the exploration of metaphysical issues are central characteristics of idealism. Philosophers such as Plato, Berkeley, and Hegel have influenced its development throughout history.
  • Period: 30 to 700


    Patristics, from the 1st century AD to the 8th century AD, was crucial in Christian history. Fathers such as Augustine of Hippo developed theology, defending the teachings of Jesus Christ. They addressed doctrinal and philosophical issues, laying the foundations of Christian thought. This period was fundamental for the expansion and consolidation of Christianity in the ancient world.
  • Period: 30 to

    The creation of Christianity

    Christianity emerged in the 1st century AD in Judea, based on the teachings of Jesus Christ and the work of his followers, the apostles. Its expansion was characterized by the preaching of the Gospel, the formation of communities of believers, and the writing of the New Testament. Throughout history, Christianity has experienced global growth, giving rise to various traditions and denominations.
  • 204

    Plotinus (Rationalist)

    Plotinus (Rationalist)
    Plotinus, a Neoplatonic philosopher of the 3rd century AD, postulated the existence of the One as the supreme principle, from which all things emanated. His philosophy emphasized contemplation and spiritual ascent to achieve union with the One. He exerted a great influence on later thought, including Christian mysticism.
  • 354

    St. Augustine of Hippo (Rationalist)

    St. Augustine of Hippo (Rationalist)
    St. Augustine of Hippo, theologian and Catholic bishop, was born on November 13th, 354 AD, in Tagaste, Numidia (present-day Algeria), and died on August 28th, 430 AD, in Hippo, Africa (now Annaba, Algeria). Known for "Confessions," he is influential in Western Christian thought, blending Christian faith with Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy. He is considered one of the Fathers of the Church.
  • 480

    Boethius (Rationalist)

    Boethius (Rationalist)
    Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, a prominent philosopher, statesman, and theologian of the 6th century AD, was born in Rome, Italy, around the year 480 AD, and unjustly executed in Pavia, Italy, on October 23rd, 524 AD. Known for his work "The Consolation of Philosophy," Boethius combined Platonic and Aristotelian thought with Christian theology, exerting a profound influence on the Middle Ages.
  • Apr 21, 1033

    Anselm of Canterbury (Rationalist)

    Anselm of Canterbury (Rationalist)
    Anselm of Canterbury, a prominent medieval theologian and philosopher, was born in 1033 AD in Aosta, Kingdom of Burgundy (modern-day Italy), and died on April 21, 1109 AD, in Canterbury, United Kingdom. He is known for his influential work "Proslogion" and his ontological argument for the existence of God. As Archbishop of Canterbury, he played a significant role in the history of the Church and medieval Christian theology.
  • Period: 1100 to 1500


    Scholasticism was an intellectual movement in medieval Europe, prominent between the 12th and 15th centuries. It sought to reconcile Christian faith with classical philosophy, especially Aristotelianism, using reason to understand theology. Scholastics like Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventure developed logical methods to study religious doctrine. It had a significant influence on education, theology, and philosophy in the Middle Ages.
  • Apr 14, 1126

    Averroes (Rationalist)

    Averroes (Rationalist)
    Averroes, also known as Ibn Rushd, was a polymath Andalusian philosopher, jurist, physician, and scholar of the 12th century AD. He was born in Córdoba, Al-Andalus, and died on December 10, 1198 AD, in Marrakech, Morocco. He is known for his contributions to Islamic philosophy and for his commentaries on the works of Aristotle. His rationalistic approach and interpretation of Aristotelian thought influenced medieval European thinking and Scholasticism.
  • Jan 28, 1225

    Saint Thomas Aquinas (Rationalist)

    Saint Thomas Aquinas (Rationalist)
    Saint Thomas Aquinas integrated elements of Aristotelian philosophy, which was based on empirical observation, with Christian theology, reflecting an approach that combines elements of both philosophical approaches. This can be considered as an attempt to reconcile empiricism and rationalism in his work.
  • 1266

    Duns Scotus (Rationalist)

    Duns Scotus (Rationalist)
    Juan Duns Scotus, known as Duns Scotus, was an influential Scottish theologian and philosopher of the 13th century AD. He was born in 1266 AD in Duns, Scotland, and died on November 8, 1308 AD, in Cologne, Germany. He is known for his defense of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary and his impact on medieval philosophy and theology.
  • 1287

    Guillermo de Ockham (Rationalist)

    Guillermo de Ockham (Rationalist)
    Guillermo de Ockham, a prominent philosopher and Franciscan friar of the 14th century AD, was born around 1287 AD in Ockham, Surrey, United Kingdom, and died on April 9, 1347 AD, in Munich, Holy Roman Empire (now Germany). He is known for his principle of "Ockham's Razor," which favors simplicity in the explanation of phenomena. His contributions to logic and theology had a significant impact on Western philosophy.
  • Period: 1300 to


    The Renaissance, spanning from the 14th to the 17th centuries, was a cultural and artistic period in Europe characterized by a revival of interest in classical antiquity and humanism. Figures like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo excelled in art, while thinkers like Machiavelli influenced politics. This movement facilitated the spread of knowledge through the invention of the printing press, leaving a lasting impact on European history and culture.
  • Period: 1398 to 1499


    El humanismo es un movimiento filosófico y cultural que floreció durante el Renacimiento, especialmente en el siglo XV. Se destacó por su énfasis en el estudio de las humanidades, incluyendo la literatura, la filosofía y las artes. Los humanistas abogaron por una educación centrada en la razón, la ética y el aprecio por la diversidad cultural. Este enfoque influyó en la formación del pensamiento moderno y contribuyó a la transición de la Edad Media a la Edad Moderna.
  • Mar 5, 1469

    Machiavelli (Rationalist)

    Machiavelli (Rationalist)
    Nicolás Maquiavelo, a political thinker of the Renaissance, was born on May 3, 1469, in Florence, Italy, and died on June 21, 1527, in the same city. He is famous for his work "The Prince," where he analyzes political power and offers advice on governing. His work influenced Western political theory.
  • Feb 19, 1473

    Copernicus (Rationalist)

    Copernicus (Rationalist)
    Nicholas Copernicus, Polish astronomer, proposed the heliocentric theory in "De revolutionibus orbium coelestium", challenging the geocentric view. His model, where the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun, laid the foundations for the scientific revolution. Despite facing initial resistance, his work influenced key figures such as Galileo and Newton, transforming our understanding of the cosmos.
  • Period: 1500 to

    Scientific revolution

    The Scientific Revolution, which took place between the 16th and 18th centuries, radically transformed our understanding of the universe. Figures such as Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton challenged traditional conceptions, introducing heliocentric theories and fundamental laws of motion. These advances marked a crucial transition toward a more empirical and systematic approach to scientific research, establishing the foundations of modern science.
  • Dec 14, 1546

    Ticho Brahe (Rationalist)

    Ticho Brahe (Rationalist)
    Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, influenced Kepler and others with his precise astronomical observations. Adopting an empirical approach, it reflected the confrontation between empiricism and rationalism in data collection. The "Tychonic System" he developed fuses elements of heliocentrism and geocentrism. His legacy highlights the importance of balancing empirical observation and reason, enriching our understanding of the cosmos.
  • Jan 22, 1561

    Francis Bacon (Empiricist)

    Francis Bacon (Empiricist)
    English philosopher, statesman and essayist of the Renaissance, recognized as the father of empiricism. He advocated the scientific method based on observation and experimentation in his work "Novum Organum." Bacon, served as attorney general and chancellor of England. In the confrontation between empiricism and rationalism, Bacon aligned himself with empiricism, highlighting the importance of empirical evidence.
  • Feb 15, 1564

    Galileo (Rationalist)

    Galileo (Rationalist)
    Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, noted for his fundamental contributions to science. Using the telescope he himself improved, Galileo observed Jupiter's moons and sunspots, supporting Copernicus's heliocentric theory. His observations supported the idea that the Earth was not the center of the universe, challenging the geocentric conceptions of the time.
  • Dec 27, 1571

    Keppler (Rationalist)

    Keppler (Rationalist)
    Johannes Kepler, German astronomer, formulated the laws of planetary motion. He worked with Tycho Brahe, using detailed observations to develop his laws. These laws, empirical and mathematical, refuted circular orbits, contributing significantly to the scientific revolution. Kepler influenced Newton's work on universal gravitation and left a lasting legacy in astronomy and physics.
  • Hobbes (Empiricist)

    Hobbes (Empiricist)
    Thomas Hobbes was a 17th-century English political philosopher, known for his work "Leviathan" (1651). In his theory of the social contract, Hobbes argued that life in the state of nature is "solitary, poor, unpleasant, brutish, and short." He proposed a strong government through social contract to maintain peace and security. His approach, influenced by elements of empiricism and rationalism, left a lasting mark on modern political theory.
  • Descartes (Rationalist)

    Descartes (Rationalist)
    René Descartes, 17th-century French philosopher and mathematician, was born on March 31, 1596 in La Haye in Touraine, France, and died on February 11, 1650 in Stockholm, Sweden. Descartes made important contributions to the field of analytical geometry and is the author of works such as "Discourse on Method" and "Metaphysical Meditations." His philosophical method of methodical doubt and his emphasis on reason and evidence have had a profound influence on Western philosophy.
  • Period: to


    "The Enlightenment", flourishing in the 17th and 18th centuries, promoted reason, science, and individual freedom in Europe. It stood out for challenging traditional authority, advocating for individual rights, and the separation of powers. This movement emphasized the importance of education and the dissemination of knowledge as drivers of social progress. The Enlightenment left a lasting impact on Western political and philosophical thought.
  • Period: to

    Empiricism and Rationalism

    The confrontation between empiricism and rationalism, grounded in epistemology, highlights two opposing approaches to acquiring knowledge. Empiricism, advocated by thinkers like Locke and Hume, contends that knowledge primarily comes from sensory experience. On the other hand, rationalism, championed by philosophers like Descartes, argues that reason and reflection are the primary sources of knowledge, independent of experience.
  • Locke (Empiricist)

    Locke (Empiricist)
    John Locke, English philosopher of the 17th century, was born in Wrington on August 29, 1632, and died on October 28, 1704, in Essex. He is recognized as one of the leading proponents of empiricism. His notable work, "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding," published in 1690, argues that the human mind is a "blank slate" at birth, advocating the idea that all ideas are derived from experience.
  • Spinoza (Rationalist)

    Spinoza (Rationalist)
    Baruch Spinoza, a Dutch philosopher of the 17th century, was born on November 24, 1632, in Amsterdam, and died on February 21, 1677, in The Hague. He is known for his work "Ethics, Demonstrated in Geometrical Order" and his pantheistic view of the universe. He has influenced modern ethics, politics, and theology.
  • Newton (Rationalist)

    Newton (Rationalist)
    Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist, formulated the laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation in his work "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (1687). He integrated concepts from Kepler and Galileo, providing a unified explanation of celestial and terrestrial motion. In the confrontation between empiricism and rationalism, Newton stood out for his mathematical and experimental approach. His legacy endures in modern physics and astronomy.
  • Leibniz (Rationalist)

    Leibniz (Rationalist)
    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, a German philosopher, mathematician, and scientist of the 17th century, was born on July 1, 1646, in Leipzig and died on November 14, 1716, in Hanover. He is known for his contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, and political philosophy. He developed infinitesimal calculus and proposed the notion of "monads" in his philosophical system. His philosophy encompasses topics such as pre-established harmony and theodicy.
  • Berkeley (Empiricist)

    Berkeley (Empiricist)
    George Berkeley was an Irish philosopher and bishop of the 18th century. His main work, "A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge," develops the concept of "subjective idealism." In the confrontation between empiricism and rationalism, he aligns himself with empiricism, emphasizing the importance of experience and perception in the formation of knowledge.
  • Montesquieu (Empiricist)

    Montesquieu (Empiricist)
    Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, an influential philosopher of the Enlightenment, stood out with "The Spirit of the Laws" (1748). He introduced the separation of powers in politics, advocating for a balanced government to prevent tyranny. In the confrontation between empiricism and rationalism, he merged elements of both in his political analysis. His legacy persists in political theory and the formation of modern constitutional systems.
  • Voltaire (Empiricist)

    Voltaire (Empiricist)
    Voltaire, a prominent French philosopher and writer of the Enlightenment, advocated for religious tolerance and criticized injustice with works like "Candide." His celebrated defense of freedom of expression influenced the formation of democratic ideas. Voltaire combined elements of empiricism and rationalism in his philosophical approach, embracing reason and empirical observation. His legacy endures as a champion of human rights and freedom of thought.
  • Period: to


    Classicism, a cultural and artistic movement, flourished from the 18th to the 19th century. Inspired by Greco-Roman antiquity, it sought perfection through harmony, proportion, and simplicity. Valuing universality, classicists aspired to create timeless works, influencing literature, music, architecture, and visual arts. This movement emphasized the importance of reason and logic in artistic and philosophical expression.
  • Hume (Empiricist)

    Hume (Empiricist)
    David Hume, a Scottish philosopher, historian, and economist of the 18th century, was born on May 7, 1711, in Edinburgh, Kingdom of Great Britain (now Scotland), and died on August 25, 1776, in Edinburgh. He is known for his contributions to empiricist philosophy and his philosophical skepticism. Hume is famous for his work "A Treatise of Human Nature" and his investigations into causality, morality, and religion.
  • Rousseau (Empiricist)

    Rousseau (Empiricist)
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a Swiss-French philosopher and writer of the Enlightenment, was a central figure in political thought. Rousseau advocated for equality and freedom in his work "Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men" (1755). In the confrontation between empiricism and rationalism, Rousseau leaned towards intuition and emotion.
  • Kant (Rationalist)

    Kant (Rationalist)
    Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, revolutionized philosophy with his work "Critique of Pure Reason" (1781), exploring the relationship between experience and reason. In his synthesis of empiricism and rationalism, he introduced the idea of "synthetic a priori judgments," highlighting innate concepts in the human mind. Kant significantly influenced epistemology and ethics, marking a crucial milestone between modern and contemporary philosophy.