Ch.14 Scientific Revolution

  • Jan 1, 1543

    Copernicus: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

    Copernicus: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
    Challenged the Ptolemaic model by saying that the solar system was Heliocentric (sun-centered) rather than geo-centric (earth-centered). This model retained the concept of epicycles, but that they were smaller. He was no more accurate than Ptolemy
  • Period: Oct 30, 1546 to

    Tycho Brahe

    (Danish) Rejected the heliocentric model but believed that the planets revolve around the sun and the sun around the earth. He charted many stars
  • Period: Oct 31, 1561 to

    Sir Francis Bacon

    true Renaissance man in learning and the arts.
    Empiricism
    attacks scholasticism and promotes experimentation based on the material senses
    Emphasis in the belief of an entirely new mindset for knowing for the purposes of human progress
  • Period: Oct 30, 1564 to

    Galileo Galilei

    Improves the telescope to make observations promoting the Copernican model.
    He is charged by the church to recant his beliefs
  • Period: Oct 30, 1571 to

    Johannes Kepler (German)

    assistant to Brahe, used his data when he died. Argued mathematically the elliptical orbits of planetary motion. Heliocentric
  • Period: Oct 30, 1573 to

    Michelangelo Caravaggio

    Baroque Artist
    The Calling of St. Matthew
    Commision to promote the Catholic Reformation
    used light and dark to evoke the dramatic and emotional
  • Period: Oct 30, 1577 to

    Peter Paul Rubens

    Ceiling of the Banqueting Hall
    Charles I commissionit to cemmemorate his father James I. gave Puritans suspicion that Charles had Catholic sympathies
  • Period: to

    Thomas Hobbes

    most original thinker of his time
    deeply interested in scientific changes
    heavily influenced by the horrors and chaos of the English Civil Wars in the mid-sixteen hundreds
    Monarchs, republicans, and Christian thinkers all criticized him for his secular, materially calculating treatment of humans who were viewed as self-servin (evil) by nature
  • Period: to

    Louis Nenain

    Painted scenes of French peasant life
  • Period: to

    Rene Descartes

    Invented Geometry
    Doubted everything, deduced truth by reasoning back to general principles, "i think, therefore I am"
    Mind-body are separate in which thinking is of the mind and the occupying of space is the material body
  • Period: to

    Gian Lorenzo Bernini

    The Tabernacle
    Chair of St. Peter
    The Ecstasy of St. Teresa
    Drama, mysticism, and emotion are used to celebrate the Church
  • The Advancement of Learning (Sir Francis Bacon)

  • The New Astronomy (Kepler)

  • The Starry Messenger (Galileo)

  • Period: to

    Maria Cunitz

    published a book on astronomy
    artisan
  • Letters on Sunspots (Galileo)

  • Letter to the grand Duchess Christina (Galileo)

  • On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres in the Index of Prohibited Books

  • Novum Organum (Bacon)

  • Pope Urban VIII elected

    Gave Galileo permission to resume discussing the Copernican System
  • Period: to

    Margaret Cavendish

    married the duke of Newcastle to gain access to philosophical circle
    Observations upon experimental philosophy
    grounds of Natural philosophy
    visited the royal society of London
  • Period: to

    Blaise Pascal

    Refuted dogmatism and skepticism
    supported Jansenists
    "leap of faith"
    Famous wager with skeptics: it is a better bet to believe God exists than not do so. If god exists, the beleiver will gain everything
  • Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems (Galileo)

  • Period: to

    John Locke

    most influential philosopher who put an end to the endorsement of the patriarchal "divine right" model.
    Opposite of Hobbes, advocated a SOCIAL CONTRACT in which the ruler is subject to the needs of the people. Conflict comes from tyrannical rulers that may be overthrown.
    Two treatises
    Letter Concerning Toleration
    Essay n Human Understanding
  • Galileo condemned by RCC

  • Discourse on Method (Rene Descartes)

    rejected the material world in favor of deductive thinking
  • Period: to

    Isaac Newton

    Established a basis for physics to last the nezt two centuries explaining planetary motion through calculus
    Principia Mathematica
  • Period: to

    Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz

  • Leviathan (Hobbes)

    humans want to maximize pleasure an dminimize pain
    to do so, they give up their freedom to an authority to ensure safety in a social contract
  • Academy of Experiments in Florence, Italy

  • London Royal Society

    (Goes for all Royal academies)
    held reading of papers, published, creaed libraries and held discussions to share new ideas. Artisans, sailors and workers were sometimes invited for their practical contributions of applied science
    Projecors, or individuals interested in selling their technical ideas, expanding scientific learning to a wider public IMPACT! base for Enlightenment
  • French Academy

  • Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy (Cavendish)

  • Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World (Cavendish)

  • Grounds of Natural Philosophy (Cavendish)

  • Period: to

    Maria Winkelmann

    husband Gottfriied Kirsch
    Discovered a comet in 1702, credited 1930
    Created a calendar for the Berlin Academy of Sciences
  • Louis XIV's Palace of Versailles

    Classical in restrained design
    Vast, dramatic paintings and murals with Louis as the Sun King
    Hall of Mirrors
  • Principia Mathematica (Newton)

    argues gravity as the cause to motion and advocates for knowledge based on observaiton and empirical experimentation
  • Letter Concerning Toleration (Locke)

    because religion is a matter of conscience, each finds his or her own way. Locke's argument for tolerance paved the way for the separation of church and state
  • treatises of Government (Locke)

    written while in exile in Holland, the first argues against DRK while the second argues humans are goody by nature and come into government to secure life, libertym and property
    Government is limited by th eneeds of the people
  • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Locke)

    humans are born "tabula rasa" or as a blank slate and are shaped by their experiences. thus, human evolution can change if the environment is changed
  • The Wisdom of God Manifested in His Works of Creation, John Ray

    Argued that God placed human beings in the world to understand it and turn it to productive practical use through rationality
  • Berlin Academy

  • Period: to

    Emilie du Chatelet

    Translated Newton's Principia and assisted Voltaire in Scientific work
  • Bernard de Fontenelle Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds

  • Newtonianism for Ladies