AP European Hisotry - Ayers - Period 1 - Homsi

  • Nov 8, 1222

    Founding of the University of Padua

    Founding of the University of Padua
    The University of Padua was a premeir University of the early and modern era. It was also one of the first insitituions to offer scientific academies. Professors include Galileo and Vesalius. Picture URL:
  • Period: Feb 19, 1473 to May 24, 1543

    Lifetime of Copernicus

    Copernicus was a Polish astronomer who introduced the idea of heliocentrism as a theory NOT a proven idea. He was able to be so vocal about his new idea due to his Protestant surroundings.
  • Aug 15, 1543

    De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium (On the Revolution of the Heavenly Orbs)

    De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium (On the Revolution of the Heavenly Orbs)
    This was a book written by Copernicus while on his deathbead. He had stated in the preface to Pope Urban III that this was mery an idea and that ohers could develop apon it. This is the first time heliocentricism was introduced as a viable idea. Picture URL:
  • Nov 7, 1543

    Vesalius Discovers odern Anatomy

    Vesalius Discovers  odern Anatomy
    Vesalius is credited with findout out the modern anatomy of the circulatory and nervous systems. Pcture URL:
  • Period: Dec 14, 1546 to

    Lifetime of Tycho Brahe

    1572-73 Crab Nebula
    1577 new comet
  • Period: Jan 22, 1561 to

    Lifetime of Francis Bacon

    Theory of Induction c.f. Karl Popper, David Hume Anotation:
    This theory was one that stated man learns by experience and practice not be lesson and acceptance.
  • Period: Feb 15, 1564 to

    Lifetime of Galileo

    1600 Giordano Bruno burnt
    1615 Letter to Grand Duchess of Tuscany
    1632 Dialogue on Two World Systems
    1633 Galileo banned by the Church
    1638 Discourse on Two New Sciences
  • Period: Jan 1, 1571 to

    Lifetime of Johannes Keppler

    Sub Topic:
    One of the laws: An equal area of the plane is covered in equal time by planet revolving around the Sun. (or the period of revolution around the Sun is proportional to distance from the Sun.) Anotation:
    Keppler's laws proved that the planets were in orbit. Since not all planets took as long to orbit he was able to confirm that they were orbiting the sun.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1572 to Dec 30, 1573

    Discovery of the Crab Nebula (Brahe)

    This was proof that there was more to the cosmos than just earth and our solar system.
  • Jun 15, 1577

    New Comet Discovered (Brahe)

    New Comet Discovered (Brahe)
    Instigated research in planetery movment and orbit. Also proved that planets move in orbit since the commet did not just fall it flew at an angle. Fun Fact:
    This commet was 300 AU (One AU is the earth's curcumpherence) Picture URL:
  • Period: to

    Lifetime of Rene Decartes

    Theory of Deduction: this system of learning taught that one must only draw logical conclusions and not make up an answer.
  • Giordano Bruno Burnt (Galileo)

    Giordano Bruno Burnt (Galileo)
    Bruno was a contemporary of Galileo and propsed that the sun wa a start and that there were more of them all over the universe. Galileo made this foundational to his works. Bruno was tried for heresey and was killed. URL:
  • Letter to Grand Duchess of Tuscany (Galileo)

    Letter to Grand Duchess of Tuscany (Galileo)
    The Grand Dutches Christina gave Galileo the professorship at the University of Pisa. The Letter to Grand Duchess of Tuscany was an essay that compared revelations of God in holly texts and his new discoveries of the universe. URL:
  • Novum Organum (New Tools) (Bacon)

    Novum Organum (New Tools) (Bacon)
    "Novum Organum" was an essay written in Latin by Francis Bacon that developed on Aristotles work "Organum" and spoke about hto inductive reasoning was the most powerful tool a man could use. URL:
  • On the Movement of the Heart and the Blood (Harvey)

    On the Movement of the Heart and the Blood (Harvey)
    Harvey opened this text a book fair where it would be dispersed quickly and reported his findings on blood circulations and the cardiovascular system. URL:
  • Dialogue on Two World Systems (Galileo)

    Dialogue on Two World Systems (Galileo)
    This text by Galileo was one that compared the Ptolemaic and Copernican models and had a biass towards the Copernican system. URL:
  • Galileo banned by the Church (Galileo)

     Galileo banned by the Church (Galileo)
    Galileo's texts were put under the index of forbiden books by the Church for contradicting the Church/Ptolemaic model of the Cosmos. This was the first step to the Galileo crack-down. URL:
  • Discourse on Method (Decartes)

    Discourse on Method (Decartes)
    Decartes published this text in order to voice his opinions on skepticism and that humans naturally need questioning to further inderstanding. This is still used as an important philosophical text. URL:
  • Discourse on Two New Sciences (Galileo)

    Discourse on Two New Sciences (Galileo)
    This text summarized Galileos work over the course of 30 years and was the final text ever published in his name. URL:
  • Period: to

    Lifetime of Sir Issac Newton

    Newton's Three Laws of Motion:
    1) A body moves in a straight line unless impeded. (Inertia).
    2) Every action has equal and opposite reaction.
    3) Every body attracts every other body with a force proportional to the distance between. Anotation:
    These thoeries are new accepted as laws and are used to this day to explain motion and gravity. His laws are is lasting legacy and the foundation of all physics.
  • Malpighi and Capillaries

    Malpighi and Capillaries
    A revolutionary Italian physician. URL:
  • Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) (Newton)

    Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) (Newton)
    This text encompasse three volumes where Newton states his laws of motion and physics. URL:
  • Opticks (Newton)

    Opticks (Newton)
    This is a book published by Issac Newton which dealed with light and reflection. URL: