Insulin shot

The Evolution of Insulin

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    The Evolution of Insulin

  • Cooking Oil

    Cooking Oil
    Cooking Oil Before insulin became available, children routinely were fed a cup of cooking oil a day because that was thought to help them process food. The results were as you imagine.
  • Bovine Insulin

    Bovine Insulin
    Bovine InsulinBanting, Best, Collip use bovine insulin extract in human
  • More Pure Bovine

    More Pure Bovine
    More Pure Bovine Eli Lilly produces commercial quantities of much purer bovine insulin than Banting et al had used
  • Commercial Quantities of Bovine Insulin

    Commercial Quantities of Bovine Insulin Farbwerke Hoechst, one of the forerunner's of today's Sanofi Aventis, produces commercial quantities of bovine insulin in Germany
  • Insulin Labritorium

    Insulin Labritorium Hagedorn founds the Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium in Denmark – forerunner of today's Novo Nordisk
  • Non-profit Insulin

    Non-profit Insulin
    Non-profit Insulin Nordisk receives a Danish charter to produce insulin as a non-profit
  • Zinc Insulin

    Canadians D.M. Scott, A.M. Fisher formulate a zinc insulin mixture and license it to Novo
  • NPH Insulin

    Nordisk formulates Isophane porcine insulin aka Neutral Protamine Hagedorn or NPH insulin
  • Marketing NPH Insulin

    Nordisk markets NPH insulin
  • Amino Acid Sequence of Insulin

    Amino Acid Sequence of Insulin
    Frederick Sanger determines the amino acid sequence of insulin
  • Totaly Synthesis

    Synthesized by total synthesis by C.L. Tsou, Wang Yinglai, and coworkers
  • Standardizing Insulin

    The U.S. officially "standardized" insulin sold for human use in the U.S. to U-100 (100 units per milliliter). Prior to that, insulin was sold in different strengths, including U-80 (80 units per milliliter) and U-40 formulations (40 units per milliliter), so the effort to "standardize" the potency aimed to reduce dosage errors and ease doctors' job of prescribing insulin for patients. Other countries also followed suit.
  • Eli Lilly

    Genentech produces synthetic 'human' insulin in Escheria coli bacteria using recombinant DNA techniques, licenses to Eli Lilly
  • Human Insulin

    Novo Nordisk chemically and enzymatically converts porcine to 'human' insulin
  • Insulin Receptor

    Axel Ullrich sequences a human cell membrane insulin receptor.
  • Lispro Insulin

    Lilly Humalog "lispro" insulin analogue approved.
  • Glargine Analogue

    Sanofi Aventis Lantus insulin "glargine" analogue approved for clinical use in the US and Europe.
  • Approved Analogue

    Novo Nordisk Levemir "detemir" insulin analogue approved for clinical use in the US.