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  • 13 BCE

    Invention of steel

    Iron and charcoal come together. Early blacksmiths discovered that iron became harder and stronger when left in charcoal
  • Period: 13 BCE to

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  • 1577

    First blast furnace

    What is probably the first blast furnace in the North of England opens close to Rievaulx Abbey. Iron working continues on the site until 1647.
  • Ironstone examples sent for testing

    Wm Ward Jackson of Normanby Hall sends examples of Ironstone to Lemington-On-Tyne iron works for testing but receives the report that it is ‘’good for nothing”   
  • The railway

    Work commences on the Stockton and Darlington Railway.  
  • Blast Furnaces

    Number of blast furnaces in Durham and Northumberland is only 2. The annual make of pig iron is 2,379 tons.  
  • Iron output

    Country’s output of iron is 600,000 tons compared with 17,000 in 1750. 
  • Hot blast method

    Neilson introduces the hot-blast method in pig – iron production, cutting down costs of fuel and allowing the use of ironstone previously considered uneconomic.  
  • Furnaces

    There are now four furnaces in Northumberland and Durham, making 5,327 tons during the year.
  • The Railway

    Stockton and Darlington Railway line extended to Middlesbrough.
  • Cleveland mines

    First Cleveland ironstone mine opens, at Grosmont.
  • Foundries

    Three iron foundries at Middlesbrough.  
  • Bolckow and Vaughan

    Bolckow and Vaughan decide to begin manufacture of iron at Middlesbrough.  
    Five furnaces in Northumberland and Durham.  
  • Furnaces

    Work on new Middlesbrough Dock begin.  
    There are six furnaces in Northumberland and Durham.  
  • Bolckow and Vaughan

    Bolckow & Vaughan open the first ironworks in Middlesbrough producing rails for the Stockton & Darlington Railway Co.
  • Furnaces

    Blast furnace erected at Walker to smelt Cleveland Ironstone. Iron trade depressed. 
  • Iron trade

    Commercial depression in the iron trade 
  • Cleveland mines

    Skinningrove Ironstone Mine opened by the Roseby Bros
  • Cleveland mines

    Skinningrove Mines taken over by Bolckow & Vaughan until October, and then transferred to Losh, Wilson and Bell.  
  • Bolckow and Vaughan

    Skinningrove Mine operated by Bolckow & Vaughan
  • Cleveland mines

    Skinningrove Mine operated by Losh, Wilson & Bell
  • The Discovery of Cleveland ironstone

    Bolckow and Vaughan discover iron ore in Eston Hills – the first three blast furnaces on Teesside subsequently follow. The Pease family and other investors develop partnerships in mining, quarrying and ironworks.
  • Bolckow and Vaughan

    Eston Ironstone Mine opened by Bolckow & Vaughan
  • Bolckow and Vaughan

    Bolckow & Vaughan build 3 blast furnaces at Middlesbrough Ironworks
  • Furnaces

    30 blast furnaces in operation within six miles of Middlesbrough.
  • Bolckow and Vaughan

    Teesside produces over 1 million tons of iron, becoming a key producer nationally and internationally. Bolckow and Vaughan Ltd. Is the largest company ever formed.
  • Cleveland mines

    Loftus Ironstone Mine opened by Pease & Partners
  • Iron trade

    Lofthouse Iron Company founded.
  • Bolckow and Vaughan

    Bolckow & Vaughan are the first company to produce bulk steel commercially on Teesside
  • Steel production

    Sidney Gilchrist Thomas & Percy Carlyle Gilchrist develop Basic steel making process enabling large scale commercial production of steel from Cleveland ironstone
  • Cleveland mines

    Dorman Long takes control of Bell Bros., including the ironstone mines at Carlin How, Kilton, Lumpsey, Skelton Park & Skelton Shaft
  • Steel production

    The first integrated steelworks including coke ovens, blast furnaces & rolling mills built at Cargo Fleet.
  • Cleveland mines

    Work begins at Skinningrove on 205 ton Talbot tilting furnace
  • Steel production

    First steel ingots rolled at Skinningrove
  • First World War

  • First World War

    During World War 1 Dorman Long are a major supplier of shells to the British army
  • Eskdale closed

  • First World War

    The whole of Skinningrove Works production goes towards making shells
  • Steel production

    The new Redcar steel plant opened, making steel by the 'open hearth' method. Dormanstown ‘garden village’ built for the workers using steel-framed housing.
  • Cleveland Works opened.

  • Votes for women over 30

  • Coal Miners' Strike

  • Brotton closed

  • Brotton closed

  • Steel production

    Dorman Long win the contract to build the Sydney Harbour Bridge
  • Tom Leonard is born in Charltons

  • Sydney Harbour Bridge

    Sydney Harbour Bridge is built between 1923 - 1932
  • Liverton closed

  • Upleatham closed

  • Newcastle Tyne Bridge

    Dorman Long: win the contract to build the Newcastle Tyne Bridge
  • Ayton Banks closed

  • Roseberry closed

  • Rosedale East closed

  • Stanghow (Margrove Park) closed

  • Tyne Bridge

    Tyne Bridge built by Dorman Long of Middlesbrough and opened on October 10 by George V.
  • Votes for women over 21

  • Ayton (Monument) closed

  • Spawood closed

  • Belmount closed

  • Dorman Long build the Tees Newport Bridge

  • Boulby closed

  • Grinkle closed

  • Skelton closed

  • Skelton Shaft closed

  • Chaloner closed

  • Second World War

  • Introduction of British Iron & Steel Federation subsidy for production from Cleveland mines

  • Upsall closed

  • Carlin How closed

  • Eston closed

  • Steel Industry nationalised

  • Dorman Long acquire Lingdale Mine from Pease & Partners

  • Steel Industry privatised

  • Longacres closed

  • Lumpsey closed

  • South Skelton closed

  • British Iron and Steel Federation support for Cleveland ironstone mines withdrawn

  • Loftus closed

  • Lingdale closed

  • Kilton closed

  • North Skelton closed

  • Tom Leonard begins his collection of mining tools and photographs

  • Tom Leonard

    Tom Leonard acquires a shop in Chaloner Street, Guisborough and opens to the public every Saturday, this was the beginning of his dream to establish a mining museum.
  • Tom Leonard

    Tom Robinson, then owner of the Loftus Mine site in Skinningrove agrees to rent part of the site where Tom Leonard hoped to house his collection
  • Tom Leonard

    Tragically Tom Leonard died however his family and friends carry on his work
  • Tom Leonard

    Tom’s wife Elsie Leonard opened the Tom Leonard Mining Museum
  • The museum is rebranded as the Cleveland Ironstone Mining Museum

  • The new museum opens