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Fulgencio Batista, 1941 to Death in 1973

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    Fulgencio Batista 1941 to 1973 (Death)

  • Batista lets the communists into the government

    Communist writer Juan Marinello joins cabinet. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista lets communists have the unions

    The communist CTC, Confederation of Cuban Workers, is officially recognized by the government. Communists praise Batista as a great statesman. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Presidential Election of 1944

    Batista picks Dr. Saladrigas, ex prime minister and ex ABC, to succeed him. He expects an easy victory off the back of his relatively calm rule. But his electoral coalition doesn’t entirely hold. His man loses to Dr. Grau San Martin. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista leaves to Florida

    “With his wife and three children; Batista now lives quietly in Daytona Beach--next door to 83-year-old automotive pioneer Ransom Eli Olds. Every morning, he is up at 7 for a brisk row in the nine-foot boat he keeps in the Halifax River. He plays tennis at the smart Daytona Beach Bath and Tennis Club, goes to the movies two or three times a week and occasionally speaks at Rotary Club luncheons.”
    Source: Time Magazine
  • Batista Divorces, marries Marta Fernández Miranda

    Batista leaves his first wife for his mistress, now 22. She will be the first lady of Cuba and remain with Batista until his death. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista elected senator

    Batista is handily elected as Senator from Las Villas, running from Florida. Feeling he is not likely to be persecuted in Cuba, and that many people hold him in esteem, he returns with parliamentary immunity. Source: Eddy Chibas Incorrigible Man for book click here
  • Batista arrives in Havana

    With personal guarantees from the president as to his safety, Fulgencio Batista boarded a plane for Havana. Receives a warm reception, a crowd of thousands, upon arrival. Source: Eddy Chibas Incorrigible Man for book click here
  • Batista arrives in the senate

    As opposed to his warmer reception on arrival, he is treated cooly here. He is embarrassed, with a senator dropping a tie pin on Batista’s chair which the general sat on, causing him to jump up in pain. Source: Eddy Chibas Incorrigible Man for book click here
  • Batista the absentee Senator

    Batista, largely confined himself to Kuquine – his country estate on the Havana outskirts. Surrounded by a stew of sycophants, politicians and journalists, he discussed goings-on and his prospects in 1952. He is a habitual truant. Source: Eddy Chibas Incorrigible Man for book click here
  • President Prio’s VP has a disturbing conversation with Batista

    The ex-generalissimo confided to President Prio's unhappy conservative vice-president that he was considering a coup. His stated reasons for wanting to go ahead with this were a plot by the ARG leader to assassinate him (this group is affiliated with Prio) and the threat of the gangsters leading the nation to anarchy. Both flimsy justifications. Source: Cuba The Autentico Years for purchase link to the book, which does not exist in ebook format, click here
  • Batista and his brother fall out

    Panchin Batista, then serving as governor of the Havana province and running for mayor of Havana, flips to the Autenticos for a sizable donation. Batista disavows him. Batista's brother loses his mayoral race. Source: Eddy Chibas Incorrigible Man for book click here
  • Batista second in the polls

    In 1951, the most popular candidates were Chibás and Batista. Chibas at 29.70%, Batista at 19.03%. Batista would gain in the following months but remain far behind Chibas. Batista is likely to lose Presidential election. Source: Eddy Chibas Incorrigible Man for book click here
  • Batista is approached for a coup

    As the nation was being rocked by strikes and gangsterism looked like it was coming back, following the death of Chibas, Batista is approached by a group of young officers, some idealistic, some self-interested, for a coup before the elections, he agrees. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista overthrows Prio

    Batista marches into Camp Columbia at 3 AM, the camp falls to him and his plotters, so do most other provinces by the middle of the day. Batista is in control by the end of the night and announces he has saved the nation from a coup by Prio and from anarchy, that the constitution is suspended, but everything will be back to normal. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • U.S. recognizes Batista’s government

    Without U.S. recognition he cannot rule, this was extremely important for him to secure otherwise cash would dry up, no party would see him as legitimate, and he would have an expiration date. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista announces elections

    Batista announces new constitutional codes for the November 1953 election. Parties could act normally, with some regulations, starting on January 1953, but they had to “respect the current government” and “avoid inflammatory statements”. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • First revolutionary martyr

    A student named Ruben Batista (no relation) is shot while participating in banned demonstrations. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • First coup attempt against Batista fails

    Professor Garcia Barena’s movement attempts to seize Camp Columbia. They were betrayed ahead of time, are arrested, and tortured. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Tensions increase as the government loses popularity

    175 students arrested at the university for participating in banned demonstrations. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Attack on Moncada Barracks

    Fidel Castro and 134 or so followers staged an attack on the Moncada Barracks in the Orient. It failed spectacularly. Soldiers, in retribution, tortured and killed many participants. Castro escapes and is sentenced to 15 years in prison. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista announces general elections

    General elections were pushed back to 1 year later, November 1954. Censorship was lifted and civil rights were allowed to return briefly. Many don’t like this and vow to sit out of elections. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Dr. Grau announces he will run in November

    By doing this he is accused of legitimizing Batista’s likely sham elections. Communists too throw their hat in the ring and ally with Dr. Grau. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Castro receives an odd visit from 3 Batista Ministers

    The 3 ministers told him that he is well known in Cuba, that they had been anti-Machado prisoners too, and that his day would come if he would calm down. Part of Batista's plan to ratchet down tensions. Source: Young Castro click here for book
  • Batista steps down to run for President

    Batista’s faithful secretary, Andres Domingo, took over the government. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista elected president in a sham election

    Batista wins the presidency unopposed, Grau protested for equal representation on electoral boards that would count votes and make decisions. Batista did not fold, Grau dropped out. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista inaugurated

    Constitutional government is allegedly restored, but turmoil caused by students, or Prio supporters, or Castro supporters, engaging in violence, terrorism, or protest, meant trouble was here to stay. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista gives Castro amnesty

    Feeling he has won, is controlling the economy, and has support from the United States, Batista declared an amnesty for all political prisoners. There was a feeling that the way to go forward was to negotiate with Batista, not against him. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Castro leaves for Mexico

    Censored, with his party not interested in him, and feeling he would be killed by Batista's police, Castro vows to continue the fight and leave. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista’s Secret Service Chief follows Castro to Mexico

    Batista applies pressure to the Mexican government in the coming years to kick out Castro. Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista agrees to meet with opposition

    A new united front had formed, communists excluded, to force Batista to hold elections in 1956. Batista met their leader, veteran of every Cuban event going back to the war against Spain, for talks. He never intends to hold elections in 1956.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista slams the door on the opposition's hopes for election

    Batista publicly ridicules the opposition and says, publicly, no elections until 1958. Sudden revival of torturing and cruelty by the Secret Police.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Another failed coup against Batista

    Young professional officers, some affiliated with the Orthodox party, attempt to take over Camp Columbia and put Batista on a plane to the U.S. They are betrayed and arrested.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Violence continues circling around Batista

    Different cells engage in terrorism against the government, including the highly publicized slaying of Batista’s Chief of Military Intelligence while coming out of a nightclub by Echevarria’s student group.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Castro sails back to Cuba

    The famous Granma expedition, with 82 men on boat, set sail for the Orient.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Attack on Santiago

    300 young men under Frank Pais, one of the leaders of Castro’s July 26th movement attacked the harbor, customs house, and police headquarters. Batista suspends civil guarantees in Oriente and 3 other provinces.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Record investments in the island

    Batista could tout a great economy and record investments, as the nightlife scene had expanded under his reign and was drawing in massive profits.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • The Granma reaches Cuba

    Fidel's yacht was instantly seen in the air by a fighter and shot at.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Castro’s men betrayed

    Castro’s forces were ambushed and scattered, but Castro survived and his legend grew with time.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista promises new elections

    Batista announces Presidential elections would be held in June of 1958, with the President sworn in February of 1959. Batista made pleads to “electoralism” and said he would not run, but could be Chief of the Army. Grau let it be known he would participate in 1958.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Women March in Santiago

    In response to repeated killings by the police, 500 women marched in Santiago with the banner “stop killing our sons”.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista appoints Major Barrera Perez to lead troops in the Orient

    1,430 men are appointed to root out the Castro insurrection
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Attack on the Presidential Palace

    Echevarria and his students stage an attack in order to assassinate Batista. 50 men were supposed to participate in the attack. Batista was nearly killed, but the attack failed. Echevarria gunned down in the streets after announcing on radio that Batista was dead.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista speaks before crowds

    Garnering support from the “better off” classes, businessmen, bankers, Batista goes on the offensive after his assassination attempt and speaks to supporters. Repression was heightened.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista pushes back midterm elections

    With attempts on his life an ongoing terrorism, Batista pushes back elections.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Conservative newspaper Diario de La Marina calls for elections

    In another blow to Batista, the conservative newspaper that had always supported him called him to agree to elections.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Santiago Clergy begins turning on Batista

    With the permission of the bishop of Havana, the rebel forces get a chaplain.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Judge turns on Batista

    Judge Manuel Urrutia lets 100 Fidelistas be acquitted, with the justification that Batista's rule is unconstitutional. Batista is furious. Urrutia would be appointed provisional President by Castro.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista is made honorary citizen of Texas

    Source: Havana Nocturne click here for book
  • Calixto Sanchez’s Corinthia expedition lands in Cuba

    Prio supporting forces arrive at Mayari. They are quickly tricked into giving up.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Rebels attack El Uvero barracks

    First major confrontation between rebels and Batista’s army. The fighting was bloody and the garrison surrendered. Batista is shocked and reassigns Colonel Barrera Perez to the Sierra.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista changes nature of the war

    Batista gave the order to evacuate peasants from the Sierra Maestra and establish a zone where shooting and air force could fire indiscriminately.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Earl Smith is appointed ambassador

    Businessman Earl Smith took up a more pragmatic line toward Batista, speaking publicly against the administration’s excesses. Nevertheless, he would still supporting Batista and sending him weapons. Would come to dislike Castro and oppose him at every turn, believing him to be a red.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Ambassador Smith gives his first press conference

    Publicly states that he does not believe Castro’s movement is “red-inspired”. Would soon his mind and lobby against Castro.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Frank Pais shot dead

    The 23 year old is shot dead by the police chief. The Pais funeral procession is immense, and has a powerful effect on the U.S. ambassador, who speaks against police brutality in Santiago.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Naval mutiny at Cienfuegos

    The City falls under the control of the July 26th movement for a day before mutineers are defeated by the army. Most prisoners were shot.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Miami Pact

    Orthdox and Autentico politicians, many in exile including Prio, join in calling for Batista to leave and for the constitution of 1940 and new elections to be held.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Castro publicly announced a Batista replacement

    Castro backs the moderate judge who ruled in their favor, Judge Urrutia, as a tolerable replacement for Batista in order to undercut the Miami Pact.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Communists come around to Castro

    The communists, facing increasing attacks from Batista due to the President’s need to identify them with the rebels, begin contacts with Castro’s movement and Guevara.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Radio Rebelde begins broadcasting

    Operating out of the Sierra, the official voice for Castro’s movement begins operating, sending anti-government broadcasts throughout Cuba.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista postpones elections from June to November

    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • U.S. Suspends Shipment of Arms to Cuba

    No more arms would be sent to Batista’s government, except exchanges on faulty materials. This shattered Batista’s morale, as he saw his old friends abandoning him.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • The General Strike

    A general strike approved reluctantly by Castro fails, Batista is emboldened.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista’s big push

    The only major offensive of the war, Operation Verano. 12,000 men, seventeen battalions, each with a tank company, naval and air support. They will engage in a series of battles and be defeated, as around 7,000 of the men were fresh recruits and morale was low.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Raul Castro kidnaps Americans

    Raul Castro kidnaps managers of sugar mills, Canadian and American, and demands the U.S. seize all arms to Batista (even trade ins), stop allowing Batista to refuel at Guantanamo, and obtain an assurance from Batista that he would not use U.S. weapons against Castro. The United States is outraged.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Massive setbacks in Operation Verano

    By August, the 11th, 18th, 19th, and 22nd battalion had collapsed or surrendered. Castro acquired weapons, army codes, and prisoners. Batista’s high command suppressed the losses, Castro broadcast them from the Sierra.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista’s army withdraws from the Orient

    His forces defeated and demoralized, Batista's big push has failed.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Sham election

    Rivero Aguero, Batista’s successor, elected in sham election. Ballots were rigged before the election and distributed by the army. Rivero maintained Batista’s position of victory only through force.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Pawley speaks with Batista

    Businessman and ex-diplomat William Pawley sent by the CIA to talk to Batista and convince him to step down and live in Daytona Beach. Could not assure that the U.S. government would carry out its side of the bargain. Batista turns him down.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • United States abandons Batista

    The State Department and CIA disavows Batista’s successor. Recognition would not be forthcoming. Ambassador Smith says the U.S. will not continue supporting the government.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Ambassador Smith and Batista talk

    Smith tells Batista to leave, that the U.S. cannot secure him in Daytona and that he should try Spain.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista meets with generals

    Batista meets with generals
    instead of surrendering, Batista inquires how to stop the disintegration of his troops, who give up without fighting. He seems a bit headless and his generals begin plotting against him.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista refuses aid from Dominican Dictator Trujillo

    Trujillo offered to land 2,000 men in the Sierra and 2,000 in Santa Clara. Batista rebuffs him.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Brigadier General Tabernilla tells Batista the war is lost

    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Sancti Spiritus Surrenders

    Guevara blitzes through Las Villas, winning victory after victory and catching Batista off guard.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista’s children secretly leave Havana

    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista tells General Tabernilla he is leaving

    Batista’s date to leave is January 6th or earlier. At the same time a conspiracy exists within the army to not let him flee. He had no plans for those who had supported him, no junta he was giving power to, a bit aimless.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Santa Clara falls to Che Guevara

    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista says goodbye

    Batista gathers his supporters and army men in Camp Columbia as the New Year dawns and says he is leaving, offers seats on planes, plans to designate the oldest judge in the Supreme Court provisional president.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista flees Cuba

    Batista flies at 3 AM to the Dominican Republic, with a net worth of 300 or 400 million dollars.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista denied entry into the United States

    Eventually Salazar, Prime Minister of Portugal grants him entrance, under the condition he stays out of politics.
    Source: Cuba by Hugh Thomas for book click here
  • Batista passes away

    He died of a heart attack on August 6, 1973 at Guadalmina, Spain. Spent his later years in idleness, writing self-serving, misleading books justifying his actions.
    Source: New York Times Obituary