History of Philosophy

  • 626 BCE

    Thales of Miletus

    Thales of Miletus
    Life: Miletus, 626 BC - 548 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Ethics, Metaphysics Philosophic current: Pre-Socratic Philosophy Idea studied: water is the arche, Hylozoism, Thales’ theorem
  • 610 BCE

    Anaximenes of Miletus

    Anaximenes of Miletus
    Life: Miletus,  610 BC - 546 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics Philosophical current: Pre-Socratic Philosophy Idea studied: Apeiron is the arche, Mechanical model of the sky
  • 600 BCE

    Theano of Crotone

    Theano of Crotone
    Life: Crotone, 6th-century BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Philosophical current: Pre-Socratic and Pythagorean Philosophy Idea studied: Golden mean, Golden ratio
  • 586 BCE

    Anaximenes of Miletus

    Anaximenes of Miletus
    Life: Miletus, c. 586 BC - c. 526 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics Philosophical current: Pre-Socratic Philosophy Idea studied: Air is the arche, Matter changes through rarefaction and condensation
  • 570 BCE

    Pythagoras of Samos

    Pythagoras of Samos
    Life: Samos, c.570 BC - Croton, c.495 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Ethics, Political Philosophy Philosophical current: Pre-Socratic Philosophy Idea studied: numbers is the arche, Metempsychosis, Musica universalis
  • 535 BCE

    Heraclitus of Ephesus

    Heraclitus of Ephesus
    Life: Ephesus, c-535 BC - c.475 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Political Philosophy Philosophical current: Pre-Socratic Philosophy Idea studied: Fire is the arche, Becoming, “Everything flows”
  • 515 BCE

    Parmenides of Elea

    Parmenides of Elea
    Life: Elea - c. 515 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Ontology Philosophical current: Pre-Socratic Philosophy Idea studied: “Nothing comes from nothing”, “thought and being are the same”
  • 510 BCE

    Anaxagoras of Clazomanae

    Anaxagoras of Clazomanae
    Life: Clazomenae, c.510 BC - Lampsacus, c.428 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Philosophical current: Pre-Socratic Philosophy Idea studied: “Nous” ordering all things
  • 500 BCE

    Hippias of Elis

    Hippias of Elis
    Life: Elis, late 5th century BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Philosophical current: Sophist
  • Period: 500 BCE to 476

    Ancient

  • 494 BCE

    Empedocles

    Empedocles
    Life: c. 494 BC - c. 434 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ontology, Cosmology Philosophical current: Pre-Socratic Philosophy Idea studied: “All matter is made up of four elements”, the cosmic principles of Love and Repulsion
  • 490 BCE

    Protagoras of Abdera

    Protagoras of Abdera
    Life: Abdera, c.490 BC - c. 420 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Ethics, Philosophy of language Philosophical current: Sophist, Relativism, Rhetoric
  • 484 BCE

    Callicles

    Callicles
    Life: c. 484 – late 5th century BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Philosophical current: Sophist
  • 483 BCE

    Georgias

    Georgias
    Life: Sicily, c.483 BC - c. 375 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology Philosophical current: Sophist
  • 470 BCE

    Socrates

    Socrates
    Life: Athens, 470 BC - 399 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Epistemology, Ethics Philosophical current: Universalism Idea studied: Socratic Method, Moral Intellectualism, “the unexamined life is not worth living”, Moral universalism
  • 465 BCE

    Prodicus of Ceos

    Prodicus of Ceos
    Life: Ceos, c. 465 BC - Athens, c. 395 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Philosophy of language, Ethics Philosophical current: Sophist
  • 460 BCE

    Democritus of Abdera

    Democritus of Abdera
    Life: Abdera, c.460 BC - c.370 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics Philosophical current: Pre-Socratic Philosophy Idea studied: Atomism, causality
  • 460 BCE

    Critias

    Critias
    Life: Athens, c. 460 BC - c. 403 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Philosophical current: Sophist
  • 459 BCE

    Thrasymachus

    Thrasymachus
    Life: Chalcedon, c. 459 - c. 400 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Philosophical current: Sophist
  • 424 BCE

    Plato

    Plato
    Life: Athens - 424 BC - 348 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Ethics, Political Philosophy, Epistemology Philosophical current: Idealism, Rationalism Idea studied: Theory of the Forms, Innate Knowledge, Plato’s Apology of Socrates, What is love?, Allegory of the cave
  • 384 BCE

    Aristotle

    Aristotle
    Life: Stagira (Chalcidian League), 384 BC - Euboea (Macedonian Empire), 322 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Logics, Political Philosophy Philosophical current: Realism, Empiricism Idea studied: Theory of the Soul, Substance and accidents, Aristotelian Ethics
  • 341 BCE

    Epicurus

    Epicurus
    Life: Samos, February 341 BC - Athens 270 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Ethics, Epistemology Philosophic current: Epicureanism Idea studied: Hedonism
  • 106 BCE

    Cicero

    Cicero
    Life: Arpino (Italy), 3 January 106 BC - Formia (Italy), 7 December 43 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Ethics, Epistemology, Thaology Philosophical current: Skepticism
  • 4 BCE

    Seneca de Younger

    Seneca de Younger
    Life: Cordoba, c. 4 BC - Rome - 12 April 65 Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Ethics Philosophical current: Stoicism
  • 121

    Marcus Aurelius

    Marcus Aurelius
    Life: Rome, 26 April 121 - Vindobona or Sirmuim, 17 March 180 Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Ethics Philosophical current: Stoicism
  • 354

    Augustine of Hippo

    Augustine of Hippo
    Life: Thagaste (Algeria), 13 November 354 - Hippo (Algeria), 28 August 430. Philosophy period: Medieval Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Anthropology, Philosophy of Religion, Ethics, Epistemology
  • Period: 476 to 1400

    Middle Ages

  • Jun 22, 1037

    Avicenna

    Avicenna
    Life: Uzbekistan, 23 August 980 - Iran, 22 June 1037 Philosophy period: Medieval Philosophy Main theme: Logic
  • Dec 11, 1198

    Averroes

    Averroes
    Life: Córdoba, 14 April 1126 - Marrakesh, 11 December 1198 Philosophy period: Medieval Philosophy Main theme: Philosophy of language, Theology
  • 1225

    Thomas Aquinas

    Thomas Aquinas
    Life: Kingdom of Sicily, 1225 - Papal States, 7 March 1274 Philosophy period: Medieval Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Ethics, Epistemology, Theology, Logic, Political Philosophy Philosophical current: Existentialism Idea studied: What’s the meaning of life?
  • Period: 1401 to

    Renaissance

  • Feb 19, 1473

    Nicolaus Copernicus

    Nicolaus Copernicus
    Life: Royal Prussia (Kingdom of Poland), 19 February 1473 - 24 May 1543 Philosophy period: Renaissance Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics
  • Apr 14, 1519

    Leonardo Da Vinci

    Leonardo Da Vinci
    Life: Vinci (Republic of Florence), 14 April 1452 - Kingdom of France, 2 May 1519 Philosophy period: Renaissance Philosophy
  • 1548

    Giordano Bruno

    Giordano Bruno
    Life: Kingdom of Naples, 1548 - Rome, 17 February 1600 Philosophy period: Renaissance Philosophy Main theme: Political Philosophy, Cosmology Philosophical current: Pluralism
  • Jan 22, 1561

    Francis Bacon

    Francis Bacon
    Life: London, 22 January 1561 - Middlesex, 9 April 1626 Philosophy period: Renaissance Philosophy Main theme: Logic, Natural Philosophy Philosophical current: Empiricism
  • René Descartes

    René Descartes
    Life: La Haye en Touraine, 31 March 1596 - Stockholm, 11 February 1650 Philosophy period: Modern Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology Philosophical current: Rationalism, Idealism Idea studied: Method of doubt, The illusory world
  • Period: to

    Modern

  • Johannes Kepler

    Johannes Kepler
    Life: Holy Roman Empire, 27 December 1571 - 15 November 1630 Philosophy period: Modern Philosophy Main theme: Epistemology, Natural Philosophy Philosophical current: Realism, Causality, Empiricism
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    Life: Somerset (England), 29 August 1632 - Essex (England), 28 October 1704 Philosophy period: Modern Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Political Philosophy Philosophical current: Empiricism
  • Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei
    Life: Pisa, 15 February 1564 - Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 8 January 1642 Philosophy period: Modern Philosophy
  • George Berkeley

    George Berkeley
    Life: Ireland, 12 March 1685 - Oxford, 14 January 1753 Philosophy period: Modern Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Theology Philosophical current: Empiricism, Idealism
  • David Hume

    David Hume
    Life: Scotland, 7 May 1711 - 25 August 1776 Philosophy period: Modern Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics, Political Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion Philosophical current: Naturalism, Empiricism, Liberalism, Scepticism Idea studied: Moral emotivism
  • Immanuel Kant

    Immanuel Kant
    Life: Kingdom of Prussia, 22 April 1724 - 12 February 1804 Philosophy period: Modern Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics, Comology Philosophical current: Criticism, Idealism, Deontology Idea studied: Copernical Revolution, Do animals have rights?
  • Jeremy Bentham

    Jeremy Bentham
    Life: London, 15 February 1748 - 6 June 1832 Philosophy period: Modern Philosophy Main theme: Ethics, Political Philosophy Philosophic current: Utilitarianism, Epicureanism, Liberalism Idea studied: Utilitarianism
  • Hegel

    Hegel
    Life: Duchy of Württemberg, 27 August 1770 - Berlin, 14 November 1831 Philosophy period: Modern Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Logics, Aesthetics, Political Philosophy Philosophical current: Idealism
  • John Stuart Mill

    John Stuart Mill
    Life: London, 20 May 1806 - Avignon, 7 May 1873 Philosophy period: Modern Philosophy Main theme: Ethics, Political Philosophy Philosophical current: Utilitarianism, Empiricism Idea studied: Utilitarianism
  • Karl Marx

    Karl Marx
    Life: Prussia, 5 May 1818 - London, 14 March 1883 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Political Philosophy
  • Friedrich Nietzsche

    Friedrich Nietzsche
    Life: Prussia, 15 October 1844 - German Empire, 25 August 1900 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Aesthetics, Ethics, Ontology Philosophical current: Existentialism
  • Sigmund Freud

    Sigmund Freud
    Life: Austrian Empire, 6 May 1856 - London, 23 September 1939 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Psychoanalysis
  • José Ortega y Gasset

    José Ortega y Gasset
    Life: Madrid, 9 May 1883 - 18 October 1955 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology Philosophical current: Perspectivism, Existentialism Idea studied: The truth by Ortega y Gasset (Perspectivism)
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein

    Ludwig Wittgenstein
    Life: Vienna, 26 April 1889 - Cambridge - 2 April 1951 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Logic, Epistemology, Philosophy of language
  • Martin Heidegger

    Martin Heidegger
    Life: Baden, 26 September 1889 - West Germany, 6 May 1976 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Ontology Philosophical current: Existentialism
  • Hans-Georg Gadamer

    Hans-Georg Gadamer
    Life: Marburg, 11 February 1900 - Heidelberg, 13 March 2002 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ontology, Philosophy of language, Aesthetics
  • Period: to

    Contemporary

  • Karl Popper

    Karl Popper
    Life: Vienna, 28 July 1902 - London, 17 September 1994 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Logic, Political Philosophy Philosophical current: Rationalism, Realism Idea studied: Falsification
  • Jean-Paul Sartre

    Jean-Paul Sartre
    Life: Paris, 21 June 1905 - 15 April 1980 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Anthropology, Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Ontology, Political Philosophy Philosophical current: Existentialism, Phenomenology, Humanism Marxism Idea studied: What’s the meaning of life?
  • Hannah Arendt

    Hannah Arendt
    Life: Linder-Limmer, 14 October 1906 - New York, 4 December 1975 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Politics Theory (Politics Philosophy) Philosophical current: Pluralism, Anti-totalitarianism Idea studied: “The Banality of Evil”
  • Simone de Beauvoir

    Simone de Beauvoir
    Life: Paris, 9 January 1908 - 14 April 1986 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Feminist and Political Philosophy, Ethics Philosophical current: Existentialism
  • Gilles Deleuze

    Gilles Deleuze
    Life: Paris, 18 January 1925 - Paris, 4 November 1995 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Aesthetics Philosophical current: Post-structuralism, Materialism
  • Michel Foucault

    Michel Foucault
    Life: Poitiers, 15 October 1926 - Paris, 25 June 1984 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Political Philosophy, Epistemology, Ethics
  • Jacques Derrida

    Jacques Derrida
    Life: French Algeria, 15 July 1930 - Paris, 9 October 2004 Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy Main theme: Political Philosophy, Ethics Philosophical current: Deconstruction, Phenomenology, Post-structuralism