History of Special Education and Inclusive Education

By Gmont08
  • The Cuyahoga County Ohio Council for the Retarded Child

    The Cuyahoga County Ohio Council for the Retarded Child
    Five mothers of mentally retarded children formed an association to protest the exclusion of their children from school. After
    the protest, special education's parent advocacy movement was born. This resulted in the creation of appropriate public school programs of these students.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Brown was not a special education case it was a case to fight racial and inequality in public schools. It was a racial segregation in public schools. Black and white schools were not equal and was a violation to the 14th Amendment. This led advocates for children with disabilities to argue that children with disabilities should not be denied equal education as well.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
    The ESEA is the nation's national education law and shows a longstanding commitment to equal opportunity for all students.
    ESEA authorizes state-run programs for eligible schools and districts eager to raise the academic achievement of struggling learners and address the complex challenges that arise for students who live with disability, mobility problems, learning difficulties, poverty, or transience, or who need to learn English. ESEA established the free and reduce lunch system.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA)

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA)
    President Gerald Ford signed EAHCA into law on November 29,1975. The EAHCA has been amended five times since its passage, and in 1997 was rename to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This law has always used six fundamental principles. FAPE, Appropriate evaluation, IEP, LRE, Parent and student participation in decision making, and Procedural Safeguards.
  • Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986 (PL 99-457)

    Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986 (PL 99-457)
    Public Law 99-457, the Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986, was extended to provide children 3 to 6 years of age with disability to receive a Free Public Education. The law provides financial support to state governments to assist them in developing and implementing services for handicapped infants and toddlers. Providing support to parents was also considered an important role for these early programs.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
    The Americans with disabilities act was sign into law by President George W. Bush. The purpose of the law is to make sure that people with disabilities have the same rights and opportunities as everyone else. It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications.
  • Sacramento City Unified School District v. Rachel H.

    Sacramento City Unified School District v. Rachel H.
    This case dealt with a highly controversial topic: the educational placement or Least Restrictive Environment for a child with disabilities. Historically, the educational placement of individuals with disabilities has been one of progressive inclusion. Individuals have advanced from primarily occupying highly segregated settings to placements in regular education classrooms.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)

    Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)
    President Obama signed the ESSA committed to equal opportunity for every child. This act was previuosly known as the No Child Left Behind. ESSA provides opportunities for schools when students are not making adequate progress. This law ensures success for students it requires for the first time that all students in America be taught to high academic standards that will prepare them to succeed in college and careers.