Scan 121050000

The Birth and Interrelation of the Many European -Isms

  • Jan 1, 1350

    Humanism: The Ultimate Pre-Renaissance Ideology

    Humanism: The Ultimate Pre-Renaissance Ideology
    -the study of Latin and Greek classics for the sake and in the hope of reviving respected ancient norms and values
    -optimistic about the human race; arguably paved the way to inspire advances in the Renaissance
    -Francesco Petrach (father of humanism)
  • Period: Jan 1, 1375 to Jan 1, 1527

    Renaissance: the Pinnacle of the Middle Ages

    -theories of discovery and methods of handling the native populations are challenged
    -prosperity in this time allows for a greater focus on intellect
    -figures such as Machievelli, a strong humanist, founded and spread ideas of strength and unification for a particular area
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Racial Superiority Sets in as the Voyages of Discovery Continue

    Racial Superiority Sets in as the Voyages of Discovery Continue
    -intertwining the economies of European empires and the New World caused the resources of these colonies to be exploited and taken advantage of
    -this exploitation of goods needed a labor force, which came from the natives, the "lesser race"
    -set the path for the superior attitude most Europeans showed toward ethnic minorities in the next five centuries
  • Period: Jan 1, 1517 to Jan 1, 1563

    Reformation, Counter-Reformation, and Consequential Ideologies

    -establishment of Protestantism as a result of Luther's complaints
    -the magnitude of these ideas can not be underestimated, because they set the foundation for Europe without the boundaries and rules of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Period: Jan 1, 1543 to

    Scientific Revolution, like never seen before....

    -beginning with the catalystic work of Copernicus, "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres," and continuing with the advancements in Newtonian mathematics
    -the emergence of science and the resulting ideologies created more problems for the Church as She no longer had control of intellectual expeditions
  • Francis Bacon and Empiricism

    -empiricism: use of experiment and observation derived from sensory evidence to construct scientific theory or philosophy
    -finally getting humanity away from the unreal, by forcing people to test their thoughts with deeds, rather than words
  • Emergence of Philosophical Mechanism

    Emergence of Philosophical Mechanism
    -this new science sought to explain the world in terms of mechanical metaphors
    -scientists no longer saw nature as a way to describe divine things
    -now, they believed nature revealed only itself and common people can view nature as a useful and tangible realm, rather than an otherworldly place
  • The Beginning of Merchantile Empires

    -merchantilism: close government control of the economy that sought to maximize exports and accumulate as much precious metals as possible to secure political and economic interests
    -the more exploited goods from colonies a government could export, the more profit they received
  • Period: to

    The Age of Enlightenment: An Intellectual Snowball

    -great thinkers from all over Europe studied and proposed many ideas about society, science, religion, and other important topics at the time
    -set off an interest in how society works and develops, which continues to the present day
    -details above
  • Deism: Reason and Faith

    -most philosophes believed in a life of reason and relgion, called Deism
    -the earliest works expressing deism prior to the Enlightenment set the footing for the philosphes stance on God
    -refers back to "mechanism," thinking that God created the world, but then allowed it to function with its own devices
  • Who Are the Philosophes?

    Who Are the Philosophes?
    -flourishing writers and critics during the Enlightenment who advocated reform, toleration, and new intellectual attitudes
    -philosophical heavyweights such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau met in places like salons to argue about modern society and usher in a new era of thought
  • Enlightened Absolutism: Relief and Tyranny

    -the ideas spread in the Enlightenment, such as religious toleration, equal treatment of most citizens, abolishing serfdom (in some areas), and lessened control of monarch
    -Fredrick the Great of Prussia
    -Emperor Joseph of Austria
    -Catherine the Great of Russia
  • Establishment of the Encyclopedia

    Establishment of the Encyclopedia
    -as with many ideologies and movements up to this point, the thought and ultimate publication of the "Encylopedia" exposed people to more earthly things and led them away from dependecy on faith
    -this great printing project was under the leadership of Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d'Alembert
  • Adam Smith, "Wealth of Nations," and Capitalism!

    Adam Smith, "Wealth of Nations," and Capitalism!
    -the concept of laissez-faire was not as foreign to Smith as it was to most of Europe
    -this great Enlightment thinker advocated little to no (with a few exceptions) government interference in the economy
    -in the same year (1776) that he published his masterpiece, "Wealth of Nations," the U.S. declared independence, basing many of its policies on Smith ideology
  • American Independence and Its Foundations

    American Independence and Its Foundations
    -United States of America declares its independence from the oppressive British colonial government
    -largely based on Federalism, with a support in democracy, the new establishment of the U.S. government was one of the most important events in history
    -not only did the democratic ideas immediately spread to Britain in the form of Parliamentary change, the long lasting influence they had on political ideologies from now on can not be underestimated.
  • Period: to

    The Romantic Movement

    -romanticism: the consequential reaction of the rationality and scientific narrowness caused by the Enlightenment
    -urged a revival of Christianity
    -related with a rise in imaginative thought, an attraction to the beauty of nature, and the various emotions that are stimulated while observing these, and more, facts of life
  • Religious Toleration during the Enlightenment

    -Enlightened Rulers such as Joseph II of Austria expressed interest in tolerating many beliefs, and succeeded for some time
    -it is important to note that many Christian and Jewish critics at the time showed great interest in intellectual rhetoric, but almost all Muslims were excluded and isolated from European thought in the 18th century
  • Liberalism: Old Concept, New Time

    -most 19th century liberals derived their ideas from the Enlightenment and principles from the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    -although people of all time have thought about having better lives with freedom and toleration, many did not try to reverse the status quo
    -finally, the idea of political change is almost tangible to 19th century liberals, and many scholars of the time jumped on the wagon to support them
  • Classical Economics: Further Economic Reform

    -as an extension of the capitalist ideas expressed by Adam Smith, classical economist advocated competitive free enterprise
    -these ideologies are great examples of how many thinkers attempted to perfect one another's ideas and contribute to make a better society
  • The Meaning of Nationalism

    -literal meaning: belief that one is a part of a nation, defined by its own language, traditions, customs, and history that make it unique, and cause it to be the primary focus of a person's loyalty and sense of identity
    -nationalism at the time was more than what was mentioned above, people believe in this so much that it stills causes conflict today
    -upon its emergence, great empires worried of revolt, loss of power, and ultimate dismemberment, and with good reason too
  • 19th Century Conservatism: The Resistance Against Other -Isms

    -some European philosphers did not agree with each other, and there is no greater clash than conservatism against nationalism and liberalism
    -those who opposed liberal and nationalistic were mainly legitimate monarchs, aristocracy, and churches, the groups who have stable power up to this point and didn't want to lose it
    -comng out of the 19th century, conservativism still affects empires where the monarch holds onto the majority power and seeks to legitimize it through imperialistic desires
  • Early Socialism (Europe=Possible Utopia???)

    -the socialist movement in the early 20th century can largely be attributed to the emerging ideologies almost 100 years prior
    -one of these new philosphies called utopian socialism spoke about the creation of ideal communities by replacing capitalist structure and values
    -some important figures in early socialism are: Saint-Simon, Owen, and Fourier
  • Anarchism: A Wild Idea

    -advocates of this highly controversial ideology, even in today's world, are usually considered socialists, even though that is not entirely true
    -anarchists believe that government and industry are oppressive and unnecessary and society should be based on a voluntary cooperation between individuals
    -one of the main spokespeople of anarchism, Auguste Blanqui, foreshadowed Lenin and Bolshevism when he called for professional revolutionaries
  • Marxism Makes a Mark on Europe

    Marxism Makes a Mark on Europe
    -Karl Marx, founder of Marxism and writer of the "Communist Manifesto" is probably one of the most influential figures in modern history
    -his ideas about a proletariat uprising to eliminate class structure were valid and appealed to many people
    -but, throughout the 20th century, his concepts were twisted by other reformists that they become nearly unrecognizable compared to his original ideas
  • Rise of Racism: The Never-Ending Plague

    -in the time were misinterpreted Social Darwinism justified the idea that superior and inferior races are legitimate, the rise if racism was inevitable
    -some influential philosophers in the 19th century exalted the role race, claiming that the inferior races have corrupted European society
    -these tensions never leave Europe, and the world, and evidently carry into today's society
  • Social Darwinism: Misunderstood from Its Inception

    Social Darwinism: Misunderstood from Its Inception
    -Charles Darwin published his idea of "natural selection" first in is book "On the Origin of Species"
    -the theory of natural selection was founded on "survival of the fittest"
    -this idea was controversial from the date of publication and has been interpreted numerous times, the most famous being the regimes that use his theories in the 1920s and 1930s
  • Period: to

    The Age of Western Imperialism

    -in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Western powers exerted politicial and economic dominance in places such as Asia, the Middle East, and Africa
    -the West was called to this for vaious reasons, such as need for materials in industrial growth, racial superioirity, show of strength and power, etc.
    -these relations between Western powers and their colonies will carry along many tensions and problems later in the future
  • The Birth of Modern Feminism and Actions Suppressing It

    -in these new directions of feminism, women have tried to become a more active part of society, but common belief still hasn't changed, and their status remains inferior
    -women such as Virginia Woolf called for an end to inequality between men and women through writing and other effective ways of communication
    -it is not until the early 1900s that universal suffrage comes for women, opening more doors for female involvement in a previously male-dominated Europe
  • Anti-Semitism and Zionism

    Anti-Semitism and Zionism
    -Jewish history in Europe had not always been welcoming or humane, and moving in the 1900s, anti-Semitism was on the rise
    -in response to this surge of hatred, a man named Theodore Herzl, called for the establishment of a separate Jewish state where the people can be protected
    -this idea is coined Zionism, and it has brought great international conflict, even to this day
  • Socialism Evolves

    -after the establishment of Marxism, it was only a matter of time for new and debatable ideologies to be spawned from it
    -revisionism: achieving a humane socialist society through the evolution of democratic institutions, not revolution
    -opportunism and fabianism also cosidered in Europe as social continues to gain momentum
  • Bolshevism Enters the Battlefield

    -as Russia develops, so does their social exploration, and Lenin emerges as a clear leader
    -Lenin establishes and leads the marjority party, the Bolsheviks, under the influence of Marxism, however they differed on many of socialist goals
    -later in time, it becomes the Communist Party of the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution; this proves the lasting effect of Marxism
  • Communism's Origins

    Communism's Origins
    -though it has various ideologies, communist roots are in Marxism
    -socialist philosophy states that if workers take over capitalist aims, utopia will ensue
    -still has direct effects connected to diplomatic relations today
  • A "Revised" Italy: Facism Comes to Power

    -fascism does not have a concrete meaning, but it can be described as antidemocratic, anti-Marxist, antiparliamentary, and frequently anti-Semitic
    -was created from the fears of bolshevism through Western Europe
    -Benito Mussolini appointed to prime minister, he soon becomes the authoritarian dictator, and the fascists came to power
  • The Appeal and Pitfalls of Nazism

    The Appeal and Pitfalls of Nazism
    -at the time, nationalism intensified as Germany looked to a new regime, one that would bring prosperity and pride back to Germany under Hitler
    -in the beginning, Adolf Hitler revived Germany's economy and soon implemented the ideals he wrote about to establish Nazism
    -Nazism is characterized by intense nationalism, anti-Semitism, sacrificing personal lives for the good of the state, and a totalitarian government
  • Existentialism: A Rebirth in the 1950s and 1960s

    -a resurgence in this belief, that there is ultimately no meaning or purpose to the world, occured in the mid-1900s
    -products of rational technology in WWII might have caused this questioning of rationalism
    -human beings should come up with their own ethical values, and can not follow a traditional religion