American progress john gast

The American West : History and Myth

  • Pequot War (Native Americans)

    Pequot War (Native Americans)
    It was a conflict between the Pequot tribe and the British colons with their Indians allies. It was one of the first great collision between two worlds completely opposed. The colons acted in the name of God.
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    Spanish Texas

    The State of Texas was under Viceroyalty of New Spain control. Some missions were built as outposts to impose the Spanish Catholic influence in the territory. Therefore, it was a place of tensions between Spain and the United States and was not populated. Tejanos were few so the territory tried to attract new people, giving them the title of Hidalgo.
  • Proclamation Line (Native Americans)

    Proclamation Line (Native Americans)
    Issued by King Georges III, it limited the expansion of the American colonies. The Americans were not allowed to settle on the west side of the Appalachian Mountains, considered as an Indian Reserve. Therefore, the protection of Indians was sidelined by the "Right of Conquest" of the Americans after their Victory in the XWar of Independence (1775-1783).
  • Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá (United States)

    Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá (United States)
    It was the first Spanish mission established in California. Those missions were created as outpost to prevent invasions. Indians were considered as captive labor and were enslaved by the Spanish. In 1821, about 21 Missions were established in California.
  • 1780 Resolution on Public Lands (United States)

    7 states in the US were considered as "western lands". Those territories were part of the public domain.
  • Treaty of Paris (Native Americans)

    Treaty of Paris (Native Americans)
    Signed between the United States and Great Britain, the agreement ended the American War of Independence, established a political frontier between both countries and ended also the regulation of the Indian reserves created by the Proclamation Line of 1763.
  • Northwest Indian War (Native Americans)

    Northwest Indian War (Native Americans)
    From 1785 to 1795, it was the consequence of the American right of conquest over its new territory. The war implicated the United States and Indians tribes (supported by the British) for the control of the Northern territory. It ended with the 1795 Treaty of Greenville.
  • The Land Ordinance (United States)

    The Land Ordinance (United States)
    Because of the rise of the population in the United States, it divided a town in 36 sections to organize them. Section 16 is for public education. The 640 acres that composed the sections cost 1 dollar each.
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (United States)

    Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (United States)
    It created the Northwest territory with news states. Slavery was prohibited and the Mississippi river created a border between slave states and free states.
  • State of Kentucky (United States)

    State of Kentucky (United States)
    This state, first explored by Colonel Daniel Boone in 1767 became in 1792 the 15th state to enter the Union after its separation with Virginia. It was also a slave state.
  • Treaty of Greenville (Native Americans and United States)

    Treaty of Greenville (Native Americans and United States)
    The Treaty ended the Northwest Indian war. It concerned the US and the Indians, Indians lands for goods with the annuity system.The territory of Ohio was also delimited and the line that separated Indians and whites was often violated by settlers.
  • Tennessee join the Union (United States)

    Tennessee became the 16th state to enter the Union. It was under the Northwest Ordinance but salvery was authorized. This territory was in the land of some battles with the Indian tribes.
  • Louisiana Purchase (United States)

    Louisiana Purchase (United States)
    This territory of 530,000,000 acres was bought for sixty-eight million francs to France. It constitued a huge part of the United States and allowed the Americans to start some explorations in the West.
  • Lewis and Clark expedition (United States)

    Lewis and Clark expedition (United States)
    After the Louisiana purchase and from 1804 to 1806, it was considered as the most important expedition in the United States because the two pioneers explored an unknown part of the country form "east" St.Louis to "west" Fort Clatsop to claim it but also for scientifical research. According to Sandrine Ferré-Rode, the Lewis and Clark expedition doubled the size of the United States.
  • Mexican War of Independence (Mexico)

    Mexican War of Independence (Mexico)
    Mexican born people( especially by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla) wanted the Independence of the country which was under the Spanish crown. The war ended with the Victory of Mexico and their independence with the Plan of Iguala on 24 February 1821.
  • Fort Astoria (Oregon)

    Fort Astoria (Oregon)
    Founded by the Pacific Fur Company created by John Jacob Astor, it was the first post by the Americans, located in Oregon. Therefore, it was a disputed post between them and the British who wanted to control it.
  • War of 1812 (United States)

    War of 1812 (United States)
    The war opposed the United States to the United Kingdom. The Americans wanted to invade British territories in Canada. The issue of the war was the Treaty of Ghent in 1815 Under Andrew Jackson. It established a "status quo ante bellum" without any change.
  • Battle of the Thames (Native Americans)

    The Americans fought against the British and the Tecumseh's Confederacy for the control of the area of Detroit. They won.
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    The Oregon Dispute

    Some nations(The US,Spanish, the United Kingdom and Russia)were interested and tried to control this west part of the United States. Some exploraters such as Captain James Cook
 (1728-1779), George Vancouver (1757-1798), Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) and Simon Fraser (1776-1862) explored the United States, especially the West coast and mapped it.
  • Treaty of Joint Occupation (Oregon, California)

    Treaty of Joint Occupation (Oregon, California)
    Signed between Britain and the United States under James Monroe's presidency. The territory of Oregon extended from Mexican California to Russian Alaska under the 49th parallel with a join occupation of British (interior of the territory) and Americans (on the coast).
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    Mexican Texas

    Texas became, after the Mexican war of Independence a part of the new republic of Mexico.
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs (Native Americans)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Native Americans)
    This agency created in 1824 care about the American Indian rights.
  • General Colonization Law (Texas)

    General Colonization Law (Texas)
    It authorized strangers to immigrate to the country regardless their origins because in 1821 there were only 2500 settlers in Texas. It folllowed the Imperial Colonization Law in 1823 which briefly authorized Empresarios to settle and Stephen Austin Jr. (1793-1736)was one of the first to go.
  • Cherokee Phoenix (Native Americans)

    Cherokee Phoenix (Native Americans)
    The Cherokee Phoenix was the first American Indian newspaper published. It was published by the Indians in Cherokee and in English.
  • Oregon Trail (Oregon)

    Oregon Trail (Oregon)
    In the 1830's it was a route that crossed the Oregon territory from East to West and taken by people with their families (pioneers, fur traders, traders, Farmers, miners, ranchers) who used a system of wagon train to move together.
  • Indian Removal Act (Native Americans)

    Indian Removal Act (Native Americans)
    Signed by Andrew Jackson, the Congress allowed the president to negociate with the indian tribes their removal to the west side of the Mississippi river to get their lands in the Southeast. It led to a Trail of Tears (1837-1838) for those who didn't want to leave that killed many Indians during their deportation.
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (Native Americans)

    Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (Native Americans)
    This case was about the influence of the State of Georgia on the Cherokee Nation. Chief Justice John Marshall explained that there is nothing possible on this case because the Cherokee Nation was a "domestic dependent nation" and not a "foreign state". Therefore, in 1832 case Worcester v. Georgia, the Nation was finally considered as a foreign state.
  • The Texas Revolution (Texas)

    The Texas Revolution (Texas)
    The Revolution opposed Texas Mexicans (Tejanos) and US settlers with the Mexican governement (under Antonio López de Santa Anna). The war ended on April 21, 1836 with the treaties of Velasco and the Independence of Texas.
  • Battle of the Alamo (Texas)

    Battle of the Alamo (Texas)
    It was led by General Antonio López de Santa Anna for the control of the Alamo Mission in texas. The Texans were locked in the Mission and tried to repel the Mexicans who were in excessive number. This battle was won by Mexicans with Santa Anna's army in March 6, 1836.
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    Republic of Texas

    Texas declared himself as an independent Republic but was not recognized by the Mexicans. The first president of this Republic was Sam Houston and legalized slavery in his country. It became a state of the United States in 1845.
  • Battle of San Jacinto (Texas)

    Battle of San Jacinto (Texas)
    The most important battle in the Texas Revolution. It was led by General Antonio López de Santa Anna on the Mexican side and Sam Houston on the opposite side. The Mexicans lost and Santa Anna was captured the next day. He withdrew his army from Texas.
  • Willamette Cattle Company (Oregon)

    Willamette Cattle Company (Oregon)
    Founded by pioneers to purchase cattle from Mexican California and raise it in Oregon.
  • Santa Fe Expedition (Texas)

    Santa Fe Expedition (Texas)
    This expedition by Mirabeau Bonaparte Lamar (President of Texas) with merchants occured to establish a frontier between Texas and New Mexico and claim the Santa Fe trail for commercial interests.They were arrested by Mexicans.
  • John L. O'Sullivan (United States)

    John L. O'Sullivan (United States)
    The expression of "Manifest Destiny" was for the first time used by Sullivan in 'United States Magazine and Democratic'. The Manifest Destiny justify the American Westward Expansion under the desire of God.
  • James K. Polk (United States,Texas, Mexico)

    James K. Polk (United States,Texas, Mexico)
    James K. Polk was the 11th President of the United States. He was and expansionist He wanted to have California before the British so he send an army led by General Zachary Taylor on the Rio Grande to protect from the Mexicans. He also send a diplomate, John Slidell to negociate with the Mexican President José Joaquin De Herrera about the issue of New Mexico and California but it was not successful and he was attacked by the Mexicans.
  • The Bear Flag revolt (California)

    The Bear Flag revolt (California)
    It took place during one month. Americans settlers in California organized a rebellion against Mexico. In that extend the state of California became independent but was annexed because of the US army on the land.
  • Proclamation of War (Mexico)

    Proclamation of War (Mexico)
    The Declaration of War against Mexico by US President James K. Polk's Declaration was approved by the Congress.
  • The Mexican American War (United States, Mexico)

    The Mexican American War (United States, Mexico)
    Polk's Declaration of war was proclamed on May 13, 1846. The US president wanted to provoke a war between his country and Mexico to get territories such as New Mexico or California. Abraham Lincoln voted against the war and some Anti-war "celebrities" defended the same point of view such as Benjamin Lundy, John C. Calhoun, Henry David Thoreau or Ralph Waldo Emerson. It ended in 1848 with the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  • Oregon Treaty (Oregon)

    Oregon Treaty (Oregon)
    It was signed between the United Kingdom and the United States under James K. Polk and limited the US and Canadian territories on the Oregon State.
  • Battle of Chapultepec (Mexico)

    Battle of Chapultepec (Mexico)
    The battle opposed the US soldiers and the Mexican army. The Chapultepec castle was attacked by the Americans and then they defended this place. It was the last step before they came in the Mexican capital.
  • Battle of Buena Vista (Mexico)

    Battle of Buena Vista (Mexico)
    It was an American battle against General Santa Anna's troups in Mexico. The US soldiers were less than the Mexicans but they had more advanced weapons, this technological advantage led them to a victory the day after.
  • Oregon territory (Oregon)

    Oregon territory (Oregon)
    The territory of Oregon was an organized incorporated territory with parts of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming and Montana that exist today.
  • Gold Rush (California)

    Gold Rush (California)
    The first Gold Rush started in California with gold discovered in Sutter's Mill. The Discovery was confirmed by James K Polk. It attracted arround 300.000 people (including strangers like Chinese or Russians) who wanted to make fortune in the American West.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (United States, Mexico, California, Texas)

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (United States, Mexico, California, Texas)
    This treaty ended the Mexican American war. The US paid $15M to Mexico for states such as Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico. Mexico also regognized Texas as one of the member of the United States. The war cost $75M to the US and killed arround 50.000 Mexicans and 5.800 US soldiers.
  • Compromise of 1850 (California)

    Compromise of 1850 (California)
    This compromise was first about to balance the number of free states and slave states. In that way, California was considered as a free state, no more slavery in the District of Columbia but in New Mexico and Utah territories, slavery was decided by popular sovereignty.
  • Act for the Government and Protection of the Indians (Native Americans)

    This act reconsiders the status of homeless Indians people. After this act they were officialy vagrant. But because California didn't allow vagrancy, Indians had to find white owners just to legalize their status. White owner made profit of it by turning them into Indentured Servants, because they had to pay their debts.
  • Vigilantism (Native Americans)

    The Vigilanted are ordinary people who decided to make justice for themselves. The growing population of California made it impossible for the institutions to come up with solutions. This reaction was due to the lack of institutions.
  • Lynch Law (Native Americans)

    Lynch Law (Native Americans)
    Because of the vigilanted, people who did wrong could ended up lynched. These case of lynching were mostly against Indians, Mexicans and Chinese.
  • Indian Appropriation Act (Native Americans)

    Indian Appropriation Act (Native Americans)
    Indians tribes were forced to move into Military Reservations. These reservations were seen as a prison by Indians because they could not hunt or fish anymore. They had to change their lifestyle, initially nomadic, they had to become sedentary.
  • Treaty of Fort Laramie (Native Americans)

    Treaty of Fort Laramie (Native Americans)
    It is an agreement between 9 parties. It set the first military reservations. It was meant to guarantee safe passage for Oregon Settlers and also to secure peace between the 9 tribes.
  • Medicine Lodge Treaty (Native Americans)

    Medicine Lodge Treaty (Native Americans)
    The treaty signed between the US and some Plain Indian tribes were moved to the Western part of the Indian territory. Therefore, conflicts took place with resisting tribes.
  • Treaty of Fort Laramie (Native Americans)

    Treaty of Fort Laramie (Native Americans)
    It replaced the previous Fort Laramie treaty that failed. The main purpose was to protect the Indians and give them the Black Hills territory. But it was often violated by the white Americans because of the Gold Rush in California.