Manifest Destiny

  • Louisiana is given to Spain

    French territory of Louisiana is given to Spain post-Seven Years’ War. America negotiates, has shipping rights on the Mississippi and in New Orleans.
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    Louisiana Purchase

  • Louisiana is given to France

    The Spanish give the territory back to France. American shipping rights are revoked, so diplomats James Monroe and Robert Livingston enter negotiations for a land purchase. President Jefferson gives them a budget of $10 million for New Orleans and land around Mississippi river.
  • Louisiana is bought for $15 million

    Napoleon, the current leader of France, had no interest in American colonization and needed money for his wars with the countries of Europe. Livingston and Monroe agree to buy all of the Lousiana territory for $15 million.
  • Ratification of Purchase

    Congress ratifies the "treaty" between United States and France 24 to 7.
  • Officially part of the U.S.

    The Louisiana Territory is officially part of the United States, tripling the country's size and providing new territory for settlers.
  • Lewis and Clark expedition begins

    Meriwether Lewis and William Clark begin their exploration of the Northwest Territory.
  • Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis

  • Initial Proposal of the Canal

    Jesse Hawley writes an essay which proposes building a 400-mile long canal from Buffalo to Albany. This waterway would provide easy transportation of goods and make New York a center for trade.
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    The Erie Canal

  • Proposal and Rejection by New York and U.S.

    Joshua Forman proposes the idea to the New York legislature and to the federal government. Both governments reject his plan.
  • Founding of the Canal Commission

    Thomas Eddy and State Senator DeWitt Clinton propose and pass a measure to create Canal Commission in New York. The Commission was to survey the route from the Hudson River to the Great Lakes.
  • Robert Stuart discovers the South Pass.

    Robert Stuart leaves Fort Astoria in the Northwest Territory to travel back east to St. Louis. Natives lead him to the South Pass, and he travels what will become the Oregon Trail.
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    The Oregon Trail

  • Andrew Jackson and the Battle of Horseshoe Bend

    Andrew Jackson and the Battle of Horseshoe Bend
    Major General Andrew Jackson defeats Creek forces and signs treaty for 20 million acres of land (approx. 31,250 square miles).
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    Indian Removal Act

  • Construction of the Erie Canal

    The New York Commission approves the construction of the Erie Canal with a $7 million budget.
  • Convention of 1818 and the Oregon Territory

    Britain and the United States agreed to a "joint occupation" of the Oregon Territory, where both English and American citizens could live and trade.
  • The Monroe Doctrine

    In a standard address to Congress, President James Monroe outlines the nation's foreign policy. Countries should only work within their "spheres of influence". There should be no intervention by a country outside of it’s area of influence, and Europe should not colonize further in the Americas.
  • Opening to the Public

    Opening to the Public
    Governor DeWitt Clinton opens the Erie Canal to the public. Within 9 years, the toll fees had repaid the cost of funstruction, and in 15 years, New York City is the busiest port in America.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act is passed by Congress. Law states that natives will be given lands west of Mississippi to leave their current territories, would live there under protection of U.S. “forever”. Government assistance in immigration to new lands would be provided.
  • Cherokee v. United States

    Cherokee nation challenges laws restricting their rights, Supreme Court declares natives dependent on U.S. government.
  • Choctaw are Expelled

    Choctaw nation was expelled from native lands under threat of invasion by the military.
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    Trail of Tears

  • Reversal of Cherokee v. United States

    1832: Supreme Court reverses decision, natives are immune and sovereign. Andrew Jackson ignores this.
  • Convention of 1832

    Delegates of Texas districts meet, create resolutions to present to Mexican government (Convention of 1832). Resolutions include tariff exemptions, easier immigration from the US, and separate statehood from Coahuila. Resolutions are not presented since San Antonio was not present for deliberation.
  • Convention of 1833

    Delegates of Texas meet, create resolutions and a constitution for statehood to present to Mexico. Resolutions included tariff exemption, abolishing the slave trade, and splitting Coahuila and Texas. State constitution was based off of Massachusetts, formed state as a republic.
  • Resolutions presented to Mexican Congress

    Resolutions presented to Mexican Congress, allows immigration, provides local government for Texa
  • Gen. Santa Anna overthrows government

    President of Mexco Antonio López de Santa Anna abolishes the Constitution of 1824 and Congress. Santa Anna begins his campaign to occupy Texas and disarm the locals.
  • Battle of Gonzales

    Battle of Gonzales
    Col. Domingo de Ugartechea asks for cannon Mexico lent to town of Gonzales. Townspeople refuse, send back note that says "Come and take it!" Ugartechea sends detatchment, they lose, return without the cannon.
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    Texas War for Independence

  • Mexican army defeated at the Alamo

    The Texas army began a siege on the city of Bexar in October, finally forcing the Mexican army to surrender at the Alamo and retreat across the Rio Grande.
  • Treaty of New Echota

    Small group of Cherokees make Treaty of New Echota, trades Cherokee homelands for $5 million dollars, compensation of lost property. Afterwards, the Cherokee create a petition claiming the treaty wasn’t sanctioned by their nation. Despite large support, petition is ignored by Jackson and the federal government.
  • Creeks driven from lands

    Creek (Muscogee) Indians are driven from their native lands.
  • First Wagons on Oregon Trail

    Marcus and Narcissa Whitman bacame the first people to travel to Oegon via covered wagon. Although the fell 200 miles short of their final destination, they set the precedent for wagon use on the trail.
  • Battle of the Alamo begins

    Battle of the Alamo begins
    Dictator López de Santa Anna arrives with his army outside San Antonio, begin 13-day siege on the Alamo. Members of the defending garrison include Jim Bowie and David Crockett.
  • Texas declares independence

    Texas declares independence from Mexico with a Texas Declaration of Independence, signed at Washington-on-the-Brazos.
  • Americans are defeated at Alamo

    Santa Anna's army breaches the walls of the Alamo and defeat the garrison. However, the army took heavy losses from the siege, losing 600-1,600 men from the army of 1,800-6,000.
  • Battle of San Jacinto

    Army under Sam Houston attacks Santa Anna's army near San Jacinto River. Mexican army is destroyed by 600-men force, Santa Anna is captured and tells remainder of Mexican army to retreat. Mexico is forced to recognize Texas as a separate state, end hostilities, and return confiscated property.
  • End of Andrew Jackson's presidency

    By end of his presidency, Jackson had created 70 treaties to move approx. 50,000 natives to Oklahoma territory.
  • Cherokee are forced from lands

    Cherokee are forced from lands
    The Cherokee are forced to march 1,200 miles to Oklahoma territory. About 5,000 die of disease or starvation out of 15,000. This event is usually reffered to specifically as the "Trail of Tears", and is the most well-known part of Jackson's expulsion campaign.
  • 1,000 pioneers head west via Oregon Trail

    1,000 pioneers head west via Oregon Trail
    Pioneers gather in Independence, Missouri and travel into the Northwest Territory. Large number of people is due to recession in American Midwest and the tales of fertile land from fur traders.
  • Treaty of Annexation

    President Tyler proposes Treaty of Annexation to the Senate, but lacked the votes to be ratified. Mexico cuts diplomatic ties over attempted treaty.
  • Texas is annexed

    President Tyler obtains joint resolution from both Senate and House of Representatives to annex Texas.
  • Texas is officially part of the United States

    Texas territory included areas of New Mexico, Texas, and Colorado. U.S. adn Mexico disagreed on the southern boundary of Texas. U.S. said it was the Rio Grande, Mexico said it was the Nueces River.
  • Congress declares war on Mexico

    President James Polk uses the skirmishes in the disputed area between the Nueces and the Rio Grande to justify war with Mexico, claiming that the Mexicans had attacked Americans on American soil.
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    Mexican-American War

  • Congress signs the Oregon Treaty

    Congress signs the Oregon Treaty, which gives the territory south of the 46 Parallel to the United States.
  • The Wilmot Proviso

    Pennsylvania Senator David Wilmot proposes an amendment to a bill relating to the Mexican-American War, where lands obtained from Mexico would be slavery-free. The amendment never passed, but sparked debate throughout the country.
  • U.S. army takes Mexico City

    After a sucessful campaign against the Mexican army, General Winfield Scott takes the captial of Mexico City.
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    California Gold Rush and Statehood

  • James Wilson Marshall discovers gold in California

    James Wilson Marshall discovers gold in California
    Originally from New Jersey, Marshall finds gold in the American River. The discovery was originally kept secret, but word got out and started the California Gold Rush.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Nicholas Trist remained in Mexico City and negotiated this treaty, despite being recalled in October of 1847 by Polk. The treaty called for the trade of the territories of New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California, Texas, and western Colorado for $15 million.
  • California drafts its Constitution

    Delegates from California gather in Montery to draft a constitution, they decide slavery should be prohibited within the state.
  • Significant population growth in California

    Non-native population of California is 100,000 by the end of the year, as compared to 20,000 the previous year.
  • Compromise of 1850

    The Compromise was a series of bills that were aimed to solve the issue of slavery in the west, the land claims of Texas, and slavery within the borders of Washington D.C. In the bills, Texas would relinquish its claims but receive $10 million dollars, territories of New Mexico and Utah would vote on slavery, California would be accepted as a new state, and the slave trade in Washington D.C. was abolished.
  • The Gadsden Purchase

    The Gadsden Purchase
    Negotiated by James Gadsden, the Gadsden Purchase bought 30,000 square miles of southern Arizona and Southwest New Mexico for $10 million.
  • Ostend Manifesto

    After the failure of Pierre Soulé to purchase Cuba from Spain, Secretary of State William L. Marcy told James Buchanan and John Y. Mason to meet Soule in Ostend, Belgium. It also urged that the U.S. should seize Cuba if it had the power or if Spain refused the sale. The dispatch was leaked, and the proposals rejected.