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  • 1415

    Prince Henry's Caper

    Prince Henry's Caper
    Prince Henry, Page 22 Prince Henry was the son of King John of Portugal. He convinced King John to "capture the main Muslim trading depot on the northeastern tip of Morocco. He was jealous of their riches, he wanted to steal from the Muslims."
  • Period: 1415 to

    History of Racism and Antiracism

  • 1450

    The World's First Racist

    The World's First Racist
    The World's First Racist: Gomes Eanes de Zurara, Page 23-24 Gomes Eanes de Zurara wrote a book titled, "The Chronicle of Discovery and Conquest of Guinea." He claimed that the Gods have given them "a mission to civilize and Christianize the African savages."
  • 1526

    First Known African Racist

    First Known African Racist
    First Known African Racist: Leo Africanus (Leo the African), Page 26-27 Freed by Pope Leo X, he has then converted to Christianity and was renamed, Johannes Leo. Johannes was then told to make a survey of Africa, "in that survey, Africanus echoed Zurara's sentiments of Africans, his own people. He said they were hypersexual savages, making him the first known racist."
  • 1577

    Curse Theory

    Curse Theory
    Curse Theory, Page 29-30 George Best, an English travel writer, stated that Africans were, in fact, cursed. George Best used the Bible to prove his theory. He read the part where the Bible said something like this, "Noah orders his White sons not to have sex with their wives on the ark and then tells them that the first child born after the flood would inherit the earth." Ham, did the thing and God "cursed" his babies to become "dark" and "disgusting."
  • Jamestown's First Slaves

    Jamestown's First Slaves
    Jamestown, Virginia, Page 36 In the year 1619, a Spanish boat called the San Juan Bautista was hijacked by pirates. The boat carried 350 Angolans. The pirates took the boat and 60 Angolans with them. They headed East and eventually landed in Jamestown, Virginia. The pirates sold 20 Angolans to the cousin of John Pory, George Yeardley. John and George ordered the slaves to plant tobacco and some to build buildings. The Africans wanting to reject their master's request, but they were ignored.
  • John Cotton and Richard Mather's arrival

    John Cotton and Richard Mather's arrival
    John Cotton and Richard Mather, Page 32 Richard Mather and John Cotton were Puritans. He arrived in America to perform a new and "purer version of Christianity."
  • Birth of Cotton Mather

    Birth of Cotton Mather
    Birth of Cotton Mather, Page 46 After Richard Mather's wife and his companion, John Cotton died. Richard Mather married his companion's wife. Richard Mather's youngest son, Increase, marries Maria Cotton (John Cotton's daughter). "Increase and Maria have a son. February 12, 1663. They name him after both families."
  • "Voluntary" Slaves

    "Voluntary" Slaves
    "Voluntary" Slaves, Page 39 A British minister named, Richard Baxter, wrote a piece called "A Christian Directory." In the piece, he argued that he "believed slavery was helpful for African people." He also stated that "there were voluntary slaves, as in slaves who wanted to be slaves..."
  • White Privileges

    White Privileges, Page 43-45 Nathaniel Bacon, a 29 years old frontier planter, was angry at the class issue. He was being ruled over by an elite, and he hates it. He decided to work with the Blacks and others who hated the class issue. If white and blacks joined forces, the governor would be done for. The governor then solved the problem. How? Well, "the way he did this was by creating (wait for it...) White privileges."
  • Anti-slavery Petition

    Anti-slavery Petition
    Anti-slavery Petition, Page 40-41 This petition was made by the Mennonites. They made this petition to prevent slavery due to their religion. The petition caused a whole lot of nuisance. Due to the nuisance, "all that antiracist talk coming from the Mennonites was shut down because slaveholders didn't like their business talked about like it was wrong."
  • The Witch Hunt Begins

    The Witch Hunt Begins
    The Witch Hunt Begins, Page 49-50 This started in 1688, Cotton Mather thought that it wouldn't be pleasant if the elites realized another elite isn't cooperating with the King. Cotton Mather decided to write a book about witchcraft to distract the enemies from attacking. The book made the enemies accuse the Africans of the recent attack on Samuel Parris's 9-year-old daughter. Then "the Salem witch hunt made the Black face the face of criminality."
  • Death of Cotton Mather

    Death of Cotton Mather, Page 53 Born in 1663 and died in 1728. "In 1728, on his sixty-fifth birthday, he called his Church's pastor into the room for prayer. The next day, Cotton Mather, one of New England's greatest God-fearing scholars, was dead."
  • Enlightenment Era

    Enlightenment Era
    Enlightenment Era, Page 56 After the death of Cotton Mather, many of his followers are beginning to continue his legacy. "And in America the leader of this better thinkers movement was Mr. One-Hundred-Dollar Bill himself Benjamin Franklin."
  • The World's First Non-Racist

    The World's First Non-Racist
    The World's First Non-Racist, Page 57-58 Thomas Jefferson, the first person to say, "I have black friends." He lived in a non-religious community, where Native Americans are houseguests and Blacks (slaves) as his friends. "As a matter of fact, Jefferson didn't even really see them as slaves."
  • Phillis Wheatley

    Phillis Wheatley
    Phillis Wheatley, Page 59-60 Phillis Wheatley is a black young woman. She was being studied because "she had an intellectual and creative bigness that White people couldn't believe." She was tested by 18 of the smartest men in America to test her intellect. She managed to answer all of the questions correctly.
  • Declaration Of Independence

    Declaration Of Independence
    Declaration of Independence, Page 68 Thomas Jefferson, who was 33-years-old then, "sat down to pen the Declaration of Independence. At the beginning of the declaration, he paraphrased the Virginia Constitution (every state has one) and wrote, All men are created equal."
  • The Great Compromise/The Three-Fifth Compromise

    The Great Compromise/The Three-Fifth Compromise
    The Great Compromise/The Three-Fifth Compromise, Page 72-73 As the population grew, they decided that they need representatives. "Two senators per state. House of Representatives based on population. The bigger the population, the more representatives each state could have to fight for interests." This caused some issues between North and South. North didn't have many slaves while the South has a bunch. North didn't want the South to have more power. So they decided 5 slaves = 3 humans.
  • Haitian Revolution

    Haitian Revolution
    Haitian Revolution, Page 75 The Haitian slaves got furious and decided to end the French rule. They revolted, something the French had never seen before. "A revolt that the Africans in Haiti won. And because of that victory, Haiti would become the Eastern Hemisphere's symbol of freedom." After their win, other countries became aware of their slaves.
  • Gabriel's Rebellion

    Gabriel's Rebellion
    Gabriel's Rebellion, Page 79-80 Gabriel and Nancy Prosser were planning a rebellion against the rule at Virginia. They mapped out their plans and recruited many captives. "The revolt was scheduled for Saturday, August 30, 1800. But 2 cynical slaves--snitches--begging for their master's favor, betrayed what would have been the largest revolt in the history of North America, with as many as fifty thousand rebels..."
  • American Colonization Society

    American Colonization Society
    American Colonization Society, Page 81-82 The purpose of the organization was to teach Blacks to help themselves to civilize in Africa. The slaves didn't want to accept the deal. "They'd built America as slaves and wanted to reap the benefits of their labor as free people."
  • The Missouri Compromise

    The Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise, Page 85 Missouri and Louisana are now slave states. The states provide the slaves freedom. "Jefferson had purchased the Louisana Territory from the French early in his presidency. He'd wanted it to be the safe haven for freed slaves."
  • John Adam's Death (2nd President)

    John Adam's Death (2nd President)
    John Adam's Death, Page 94 John Adams died "on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence." People see death as an encouragement to carry on their legacies. Boston's population had spiked and they are immersed with New England's industrial revolution, running on the wheels of southern cotton.
  • William Lloyd Garrison

    William Lloyd Garrison
    William Lloyd Garrison, Page 95 Garrison was a smart fellow, he was White. He was against slavery. He eventually met up with a guy named David Walker, a slave. They both wanted to abolish slavery. Walker died due to a disease, so Garrison carried on both their legacies and wrote literature. "Garrison would buck that trend and start a newspaper, the Liberator...This paper relaunched the abolitionist movement among White people."
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nat Turner's Rebellion, Page 98 Nat Turner was an African-American slaveholder. "Turner believed the same was true for freedom. That he was called upon by God to plan and execute a massive crusade, an uprising that would free slaves, and in so doing would leave slave masters, their wives, and even their children slaughtered." The rebellion began and there was bloodshed everywhere in Virginia until Nat Turner was caught and hanged.
  • Samuel Morton

    Samuel Morton
    Samuel Morton, Page 101 Samuel Morton was a scientist. He is a scientist who measures the skulls of humans. He "determined that White people had bigger skulls and therefore greater intellectual capacity..."
  • John C. Calhoun

    John C. Calhoun
    John C. Calhoun, Page 102 John C. Calhoun is a senator from South Carolina. He was a racist and outrageous man. He's the kind of person who would be able to make a whole entire crowd of racist people become angry at the opposing people. "He was running for office and angry that congressmen were even debating emancipation. Possibly ending slavery? An outrage!"
  • Frederick Douglass's Book

    Frederick Douglass's Book
    Frederick Douglass's Book, Page 103 Frederick Douglass, a slave with exceptional intelligence. "In June 1845, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave was published. It outlined Douglass's life and gave a firsthand account of the horrors of slavery."
  • Abraham Lincoln

    Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln, Page 110 Before Abraham Lincoln became president, he lost in a senate race against a person named Stephen Douglas. Douglas was proslavery. He was trying to run the senate because he was trying to help the abolitionist movement. "Lincoln was fighting on behalf of the abolitionist movement because you can't win if you don't have an opposing view to debate..."
  • The 16th President

    The 16th President, Page 112-113 The 16th President or also known as Abraham Lincoln has finally become president after all his hardships. He was able to get the title with the help of the racist community. "Lincoln was against Black voting. Lincoln was against racial equality. Lincoln and the party pledged not to challenge Southern slavery. And Lincoln won."
  • Civil War

    Civil War
    Civil War, Page 114-115 The Civil War broke out due to moral beliefs, slavery, the Declaration of Independence, and etc. The slaves joined in with the Northern army to fight against their slaveholders which are at the Southern army. "They wanted the chance to fight against the thing that had been beating them, raping them, killing them."
  • Garrison's Retirement

    Garrison's Retirement, Page 118 Once Garrison knows that his movement was a success, his job as an abolitionist is over. "But his team, followers, refused to stop their work, and instead shifted their focus to Black voting."
  • Andrew Johnson

    Andrew Johnson
    Andrew Johnson, Page 119 After Lincoln died, Andrew became the 17th president. Andrew Johnson reversed Lincoln's rules and created "Black codes--social codes used to stop Black people from living freely..."
  • American Anti-Slavery Society Disbanded

    American Anti-Slavery Society Disbanded, Page 123 After thinking that the problems were over, the community disbanded. Letting everyone's guard down. Now the racists are there with the right preparations. Garrison lived his life protecting and wanting to give Blacks a chance to be free. Knowing this, Blacks became more eager to fight back. "Black people eager to leave the South, eager to give themselves a chance at safety..."