Prince Henry's goal was to "capture the main Muslim trading depot [in] Morocco" (20)
Period: 1415 to
"History of Racism and Anti-racism."
The World's First Racist
According to Kendi and Reynolds, "Zurara was the first person to write about and defend black human ownership" (25)
First Known African Racist
Johannes Leo, also known as Leo Africanus, "echoed Zurara's sentiments of Africans, his own people [and called them...] hypersexual (26-27)
George Best's Curse Theory
George Best determined... that it couldn't have been climate that made darker people inferior, and instead determined that Africans were in fact cursed (30)
William Perkins "ordering a family"
the souls and the potential of the souls were equal but not the skin (30)
san juan ship
American was full of planters and missionaries. And the new slaves would cause a bit of conflict
Jamestown's First Slaves
A Latin American ship was seized by pirates and "twenty Angolans [on board were sold to] the governor of Virginia"(36).
Richard Mather's Arrival
Richard Mather was a Puritan who came to America to practice a "more disciplined and rigid" (32) form of Christianity.
Youngest Harvard student
Cotton Mather was the youngest Harvard student by the age of 11
Notes on Baxter
Baxter believed slavery was helpful for African people (39)
Notes on Locke
He believed that the most unblemished, purest, perfect minds belonged to Whites, meaning whites had dirty minds (39)
Nathaniel Bacon declared the liberty of all servants and Black were the same class and should be united against the true enemy of rich white people. (43)
Creation of White Privileges
In response to Nathaniel Bacon's uprising, local government decided to give "all Whites [...] absolute power to abuse any African person" (45).
Menttacomet is a Native American war leader that was killed in 1676 from a battle, Puritan's cut up his body like savages as if it were a hog's and paraded his remains around Plymouth. (42,43)
First Antiracist Writing in the Colonies
The Mennonites were against slavery because they "equat[ed]" (41) discrimination based on skin color to discrimination based on religion.
The Witch Hunt Begins!
We found out that Mather was a huge fan of witches. There was a revolution so Mather wrote a book "outlining the symptoms of witchcraft [and] in nearly every instance, "the devil" was described as Black" (49-50).
First Great Awakening
Enslavers became more open to ideas about slavery saving the souls of enslaved people "until the First Great Awakening, which swept through the colonies... spearheaded by a Connecticut man named Jonathan Edwards" (53).
American Philosophical Society (APS)
Benjamin Franklin created "a club for smart (White) people" (57) to discuss ideas and philosophy.
The (American) Enlightenment
In the mid-1700's, "new America entered what we now call the Enlightenment Era" (56).
Phyllis Wheatley's Test
Wheatley "proved herself [as intelligent and] human" (60) by passing a test given by some of the smartest men in the country at the time.
Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson was writing the Declaration of Independence and he "wrote, "All men are created equal."" (68) which caused a lot of questions to rise.
The Three Fifths Compromise
The The Three Fifths Compromise said that "Every five slaves equaled three humans" (73-74) meaning they were viewed as inferior.
"In August 1791, close to half a million enslaved Africans in Haiti rose up against French rule. A revolt that the Africans in Haiti won. Haiti would become the Eastern Hemisphere's symbol of freedom" (75).
North America's Biggest Uprising
The revolt "would have been the largest slave revolt in the history of North America, with... fifty thousand rebels" (80) but two slaves had snitched and the revolt failed.
Jefferson's Slave Trade Act
Thomas Jefferson brought "a new Slave Trade Act. The goal was to stop the import of people from Africa and the Caribbean into America, and fine illegal slave traders" (82-83). However the act didn't stop all this from happening.
The Missouri Compromise
The Missouri Compromise "admit[ed] Missouri as a slave state, bu they'd also admit Maine as a free state to make sure there was still an equal amount of slave states and free states" (86-87). Meaning no one would be at a disadvantage.
Garrison's First Abolition Speech
Garrison "worked as an editor of a Quaker-run abolitionist newspaper. He favored a gradual abolition-a freedom in steps. [He] was unafraid to speak out against colonization" (95-96).
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Nat Turner "was a and a preacher[.]... [H]e [believes he] was called upon by god to plan and execute a massive crusade, an uprising that would free slaves" (98) but would also harm and get slave masters killed.
AASS Abolitionist Pamphlets
The American Anti-Slavery Society decided to do "mass printing and an efficient postal service to overwhelm the nation with twenty to fifty thousand pamphlets a week" (99) as an attempt to end slavery.
(False) US Census Report
In 1840 a US Census report "said that free Blacks were insane and enslaved Blacks were sane" (101) which is one of the false claims made during that time.
"The Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass, an American Slave"
The book published in 1845 "outlined Douglass's life and gave a firsthand account of the horrors of slavery" (103).
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe's book, published in 1852 "became the biggest book of its time [and] was drawing more northerners to the abolitionists movement" (107).
All Southern states "starting with South Carolina... left the Union [so] they could make up their own rules and live their lives as racist as they wanted" (114) which would eventually lead up to the civil war.
Slave Act Repealed
After the Fugitive Slave Act, "a bill passed that declared all Confederate-owned Africans who escaped to Union lines or who resided in territories occupied by the Union to be "forever free of their servitude" (115).
After the civil war had ended, Lincoln delivered a plan that "Blacks (the intelligent ones) should have the right to vote" (117) which caused him to get shot three days later and died the following morning.
40 Acres and a Mule
In Pennsylvania, a congressman Thaddeus Stevens "fought for the redistribution of land to award former slaves forty acres to work for themselves" (120).
This was started on 2/3/1870 it was what allowed people of color or black people to vote. However, even though it allowed them to vote. It never stated that black people would be protected. There's another thing. It also never stated the voting requirements. This means you could all of a sudden make a person not vote since the voting requirements weren't stated. (121-122)
Black Codes and Jim Crow
"black codes-social codes used to stop Black people from living freely-were created. They would quickly evolve into Jim Crow laws, which were laws that legalized racial segregation" (119).
Edgar Rice Burroughs
Edgar Rice Burroughs wrote a book to reinforce the idea of White supremacy and to remind White men that Africans were savages. It was called Tarzan of the Apes. (145)
Du Bois believed in being like White people to eliminate threat so that Black people could compete. Washington believed in eliminating thoughts of competition so that White people wouldn't be threatened by Black sustainability. (134)