Schools of Vedanta

  • Period: 788 to 829

    Adi Sankara

    The main commentator of the Brahma Sutras and the Vedanta Sutras was the ancient Indian philosopher Adi Shankara, who is considered to be the founder of the Advaita Vedanta tradition.
  • 800

    Advaita Vedanta

    Advaita Vedanta is a Hindu philosophical tradition that originated in ancient India. It is based on the teachings of the Upanishads, which are part of the ancient Hindu scriptures known as the Vedas. The main text of Advaita Vedanta is the "Brahma Sutras," written by the sage Vyasa. Another important text is the "Vedanta Sutras," also known as the "Upadesha Sutras," written by the sage Badarayana.
  • 850


    Bhedabheda is a philosophical school of thought that is mentioned in several Indian scriptures and philosophical texts. One of the most well-known texts that discusses Bhedabheda philosophy is the "Brahmasutrabhasya" by Bhaskara, which is a commentary on the "Brahma Sutras." Other texts that discuss Bhedabheda philosophy include the "Anu-Vakyana" and the "Tattva-Viveka" by Bhaskara, as well as the "Tattvabindu" by Nimbarka.
  • Period: 1017 to 1135


    Ramanuja's philosophy is based on the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Brahmasutras, and he developed his ideas in response to the Advaita Vedanta tradition, which he felt did not provide enough detail about the nature of reality.
  • 1049

    Visistadvaita Vedanta

    Visistadvaita Vedanta is a philosophical tradition within Hinduism that was developed by the sage Ramanuja in the 11th century CE. The name "Visistadvaita" is Sanskrit for "qualified non-dualism," which reflects the central tenet of this philosophical system. Reality is considered to be non-dual, but with qualifications, which means that there is an ultimate, unchanging reality called Brahman, but it is not completely homogeneous.
  • 1050


    Dvaitadvaita, also known as Bhedabheda, is a philosophical system propounded by the 13th-century Indian philosopher Nimbarka. It is a form of dualistic monism that asserts the existence of both the individual self (jivatma) and the ultimate reality (Brahman), but also recognizes a unity between the two. In Dvaitadvaita, the individual self is seen as a dependent reality, whereas the ultimate reality of Brahman is seen as the independent reality.
  • Period: 1238 to 1317


    Madhvacharya's philosophy is characterized by its emphasis on the dual nature of reality, and its rejection of the non-dual Advaita Vedanta philosophy. The Dvaita school of thought holds that the individual soul is dependent on God and can only attain liberation through God's grace. It also emphasizes the importance of devotion and worship in achieving liberation, and maintains that the material world is real and not an illusion.
  • 1250


    Sivadvaita is a sub-school of Vedanta philosophy that originated in India. It is also known as "Qualified Non-Dualism" Sivadvaita views the ultimate reality as Siva, who is both the efficient and material cause of the universe, and the individual self (Atman) as a part of Siva. According to this philosophy, Siva is the only reality, but the world and individual self are not separate from Siva. Rather, they are inseparable from Siva and dependent on Siva for their existence.
  • 1280

    Dvaita Vedanta

    Dvaita Vedanta is a dualistic school of Indian philosophy that emphasizes the dual nature of the soul (Atman) and the supreme being (Brahman). It was founded by the philosopher Madhvacharya in the 13th century. According to Dvaita philosophy, the individual soul is different from Brahman and exists eternally as a separate entity. It maintains that liberation, or moksha, can only be achieved through the grace of God and not through individual effort.
  • Period: 1350 to 1410


    Sripati, also known as Sri Vallabhacharya, was a 15th century Indian philosopher and theologian who founded the Pushti Marga or the path of grace. Sripati is considered to be the foremost exponent of Dvaitadvaita philosophy, and his work, the "Srikara Bhashya," is a commentary on the "Brahma Sutras" which explains this philosophy.
  • 1380


    Dvaitadvaita is a school of thought within Vedanta that recognizes both duality (dvaita) and non-duality (advaita) as true in a qualified sense. This philosophy is also known as "Bhedabheda" or "Bhedo-abheda," which means "difference and non-difference." Dvaitadvaita asserts that God (Brahman), the individual souls (jivas), and the material world are all distinct and yet interdependent.
  • Period: 1473 to 1531


    Vallabhacarya was an Indian philosopher and theologian who lived in the 15th century. He founded the philosophical system of Suddhadvaita and wrote several texts on the philosophy, including the "Anubhasya," which is a commentary on the "Bhagavata Purana."
  • 1500


    Suddhadvaita, also known as Pure Non-dualism, is a Vedantic philosophy propounded by Vallabhacarya, who lived in the 15th century. According to Suddhadvaita, the ultimate reality is Brahman, and the individual self (Atman) is identical to Brahman. The philosophy emphasizes the unity and oneness of Brahman, and that all creatures are part of this ultimate reality.
  • Samanyavada

    Samanyavada is a philosophical school within the Advaita tradition that holds that the individual self and the ultimate reality (Brahman) are both real and distinct, but still exist in a non-dual relationship. This view is also known as "non-dualism with distinction". The idea behind Samanyavada is that the individual self and Brahman are not two separate entities, but rather, the individual self is a part of Brahman and thus, in a sense, both are identical.
  • Acintya Bhedabheda

    Acintya Bhedabheda is a philosophical system within the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition, which is a sect of Hinduism that worships Lord Krishna as the supreme deity. The term "Acintya" means "inconceivable" and "Bhedabheda" means "simultaneous oneness and difference." The philosophy of Acintya Bhedabheda asserts that the individual soul and the supreme soul (Brahman) are simultaneously one and different, which is a paradox that is beyond human comprehension.