Romantic Era

By hvictry
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    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

    German writer and statesman
    His writings were incredibly influential on our Romantic composers Already a celebrity by age 25 Wrote: poetry, dramas, an autobiography, books about literature, 4 novels, and scientific books on anatomy, botany, and color
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    Luigi Cherubini

    Italian composer: French opera titled Lodoïska (1791). Plot: the defeat of oppression dramatized as a heroic rescue from enslavement and imprisonment
    This need to display liberty, equality, and heroism fueled not only opera, but music performances in general, and not just in France, but in other parts of Europe as well
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    Sturm und Drang

    a new emotional movement in German literature took place
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    Napolean Bonaparte

    Napoléon Bonaparte had been a military leader during the Revolution.
    In 1799 he was installed as the First Consul of the Consulate and progressively extended his personal control over France.
    In October 1813, a large Allied army defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig. The next year, the Allies launched an invasion of France and captured Paris, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April 1814. He was exiled to the island of Elba.
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    Ludwig van Beethoven

    He is the transitional figure from the Classical to the Romantic style
    Composed all genres:
    9 symphonies
    1 (bad) opera
    Much piano music
    Lieder
    Many chamber pieces
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    Chancellor of Austria, Klemenz Wenzel von Metternich

    Hosted the Congress of Vienna and was instrumental in shaping social activities
    The social activities fueled two new musical genres: the character piece and the Lied (song)
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    An article was published about Beethoven’s instrumental music written by E. T. A. Hoffmann

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    Carl Maria von Weber

    Composed the first German romantic opera “Der Freischütz” (The Magic Bullet, 1819-21)
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    French Revolution

    The “common” people saw themselves as empowered to break free from oppression. Nobility oppression of the commoners. The commoners revolted.
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    Gioacchino Rossini

    The most important opera composer in the early 19th century
    In fact, the most famous composer in Europe in the early 19th century
  • Paris Conservatory

    France founded the Paris Conservatory as a state institution for the training of musicians
    Replaced the training in churches and courts
    Cherubini was on the founding faculty and became its director in 1822
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    Franz Schubert

    Composed in all genres, over 600 Lieder
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    Gaetano Donizetti

    Italian opera composer
  • Antonio Salieri

    Antonio Salieri:
    He told his biographer, Mosel, in 1800 the following: “From that period [around 1800] I realized that musical taste was gradually changing in a manner completely contrary to that of my own times. Eccentricity and confusion of genres replaced reason and masterful simplicity.”
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    Vincenzo Bellini

    Italian opera composer
  • Fidelio

    Beethoven composed only one opera; it was in this genre
  • Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Opus 67 (1808), Mvt. 1

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    Felix Mendelssohn

    Composer of most genres, revived of J.S. Bach’s music in Leipzig
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    Romantic Era

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    Robert Schumann

    More important as an editor and promoter of music
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    Frederic Chopin

    Pianist (delicate style) and composer
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    Franz Liszt

    Piano virtuoso, writer, conductor, composer, innovator, supporter of Wagner
  • Hoffmann calls Beethoven a genius

  • The Carlsbad Decrees

    These decrees placed severe limits on freedom of expression by individuals (including artists) and institutions such as Universities and presses.
    Vienna was not a place in the 1820s that allowed any kind of artistic expression.
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    Clara Schumann

    Virtuoso pianist, composer, wife of Robert
  • Evolved Romanticism

    Objects, art, and life were all romanticized
    Emotions were romanticized also
    The individual was valued, thus placing more focus on what the composer had to say and express
    Composers became more important than the performer in the eyes of the audience
  • Royal Academy of Music

    London opened its own music school called the Royal Academy of Music
  • Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung

  • New York Philharmonic

    New York Philharmonic was founded