Romantic Era (1810-1890)

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    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

    German writer and statesmen; wrote poetry, dramas, an autobiography, books about literature, 4 novels, and scientific books on anatomy, botany, and color
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    Luigi Cherubini

    Italian composer who wrote the french opera titled Lodoïska; was on the founding faculty of the Paris Conservatory and became its director in 1822
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    Ludwig van Beethoven

    he is the transitional figure from the Classical to the Romantic style; virtuoso pianist; expert improvisor; made his living in Vienna as a performer before he gained fame as a composer
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    Klemenz Wenzel von Metternich

    chancellor of Austria, hosted the congress of Vienna and was instrumental in shaping social activities; the social activities fueled two new musical genres: character piece and the Lied
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    Carl Maria von Weber

    composed the first German romantic opera "Der Freischütz" (The Magic Bullet, 1819-21)
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    Giacomo Meyerbeer

    jewish german composer who studied in Italy and composed French opera in Paris
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    Gioacchino Rossini

    the most important opera composer in the early 19th century; the most famous composer in Europe in the early 19th century
  • Paris Conservatory

    founded in 1795 as a state institution for the training of musicians; replaced the training in churches and courts
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    Franz Schubert

    composed in all genres, over 600 Lieder; mostly a freelance composer and earned his income from teaching and publishing his music
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    Gaetano Donizetti

    Italian opera composer; wrote over 70 operas
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    Vincenzo Bellini

    Italian opera composer; famous for his opera Norma (1831)
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    Hector Berlioz

    one of the most important early innovators of new orchestration and genres; French composer, conductor, critic, and author; wrote a treatise on orchestration
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    Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel

    sister of Felix, composer
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    Felix Mendelssohn

    composer of most genres, revived of J.S. Bach's music in Leipzig; was a famous conductor
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    Robert Schumann

    More important as an editor and promoter of music; started out as a pianist; founder and editor of The New Journal for Music
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    Frédéric Chopin

    pianist and composer
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    Franz Liszt

    piano virtuoso, writer, conductor, composer, innovator, support of Wagner
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    Richard Wagner

    he changed opera, harmony, music in general
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    Giuseppe Verdi

    the most important Italian composer in the mid to late 19th century; primarily an opera composer; hailed as a hero of Italy and audiences yelled "Viva Verdi"
  • Erlkönig (Erlking)

    based on the legend that whoever is touched by the king of the elves must die; use of music to characterize things
  • The Ophicleide

    keyed brass instrument similar in range to a trombone, patented by Jean Hilaire Asté (a French instrument maker, 1821)
  • The Carlsbad Decrees of 1819

    decrees that placed severe limits on freedom of expression by individuals and institutions such as universities and presses; affected both Beethoven and Schubert who were working there during the 1820s.
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    Clara Schumann

    virtuoso pianist, composer, wife of Robert
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    Jacques Offenbach

    known for his operettes La belle Hélène, Orphée aux enfers
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    Bedřich Smetana

    Bohemian (Czechoslovakian); best known for his programmatic cycle of 6 symphonic poems called Má vlast (My Country); a pianist and child prodigy
  • Symphonie fantastique

    a program symphony in 5 movements
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    Johannes Brahms

    German romantic composer; continued classical traditions; a scholar; one of the first editors of J.S. Bach's music
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    Georges Bizet

    blended styles into opera comique with Carmen (1875)
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    Nationalism

    Germany exerted its artistic superiority in Europe: other countries responded with ideas that promoted the worthiness of their own cultures
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    Antonin Dvorak

    nationalist composer who was from czechoslovakia; studied under Brahms; studied Black American cutures and music of the Native Americans
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    Edvard Grieg

    nationalist from Norway; famous piano concerto
  • Saxophone

    This instrument was invented during this time.
  • Symphonic (tone) poem

    a one-movement orchestral work created by Franz Liszt as an option to the traditional symphonic form
  • Rigoletto

    first produced in Venice, Italy;
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    Edward Elgar

    nationalist composer from England
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    Giacomo Puccini

    trained in music but wanted to follow his passion for the theater; pursued a career in operatic composition
  • The Mighty Five

    Russian composers including: Mily Balakirev, Alexander Borodin, César Cui, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Modest Musorgsky
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    Isaac Albéniz

    nationalist composer from Spain
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    Frederick Delius

    nationalist composer from England who also lived in France and the U.S.
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    Jean Sibelius

    nationalist from Finland and composed Finlandia, a tone poem cycle
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    Enrique Granados

    nationalist composer from Spain
  • No. 2: "Vltava" ("The Moldau")

    tone poem, he uses tone painting to evoke the sounds of the Moldau River, wrote a program for the piece as an explanation
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    Manuel de Falla

    nationalist composer from Spain
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    Béla Bartok

    virtuoso pianist; wrote opera, string quartets, concertos, orcehstral music