Romantic (1810-1890)

By pjc027
  • Period: to

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

    Writer and statesman, whose writings were very influential on romantic composers. wrote lots of artsy shiz. Many composers set Goethe's poetry.
  • General Info

    Romantic period is defined by how many inexpressible emotions could be represented through the music or literature. Specifically longing.
    Romantic style manifested itself in minor keys, bigger arrangements more brass and percussion, and various other things.
    Recitals became popular, for the public (middle class) composers were teachers of the common man, some of which went on to write about music academically.
    Song Cycles are sets of lieder that are connected in some way.
  • Ideas

    In addition to larger concepts of the romantic style there were also intimate pieces that described 1 or 2 moods. Meant to be poetic, ballades etudes, nocturnes, mazurkas, and lieder.
    Composers became more important in the eyes of the public, because the individual was placed on a higher pedestal.
    Extreme emotions were interesting. "Cult of Individual Feeling" described the encouragement of passion and free will to achieve a higher state of being.
    The supernatural became very common.
  • Ideas 2 electric boo-

    Death was important in ROM, as it sought to transcend the ordinary, strange harmony sinister music exemplifies this.
    Romanticizing of the past.
    Here is where the rule breaking starts, as artists distrust rules.
    Nature became a common topic, common in GER.
    Tempos are extremely varied, Rubato becomes common place.
    Melodies more complex,
    New harmonies, and chords, with unique progressions.
  • New Genres

    Character pieces: 1-movement poetic works for solo piano
    Tone Poems: (also called symphonic poems), 1 movement orchestral works with programmatic associations.
    Lieder: Existed before the 19th, but really came into focus during this period. Composers created poetry settings and emotional expression. Lieder are re-envisioned in the 19th century
    Character Pieces: One movement Piano Pieces, composers performed on their own, and could be anywhere.
    Concertos: Must use an Orchestra.
  • Ideas 3 This Time its Personal...

    Romanticism represents reaction against the rationality and universal appeal of the enlightenment, for a different universal appeal. Symphonies liberated the instrumental genre to be more equal to vox. Instrumental music was seen as a pure way to get to the "essence" of things. Concert going was taken extremely seriously after this shift.
    Idee fixe: longer than a leitmotif, but functions the same way.
  • New Genres 2

    Choral Music came back as a way for the middle class to be artsy.
  • Program Music in 19th Century

    Concert Overture:
    A single-movement concert piece for orchestra not associated with a staged piece; based on an extra-musical idea. The overture might evoke a land- or seascape or embody a poetic or patriotic idea.
    Incidental Music: An overture and a series of pieces to be performed between the acts of a play and during important scenes
    Program Symphony: A multi-movement work for orchestra that is associated with an extra-musical idea and can tell a story or be descriptive
    Tone poem: Liszt 1848
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    Luigi Cherubini

    Italian who composed French opera focused on the liberty and equality subject
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    Ludwig van Beethoven

    Transitional figure from Classical to Romantic. Composed in all genres including a bad opera. A virtuoso pianist and expert improvisor, who made his living in Vienna, making heroic music for an age fresh out of the revolutions. Screwed with the order of sonata and changed it to what it would become in the new century.
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    Alessandro Manzoni

    Sad man with a sad life, all poets aspire to be him. Hes the reason the Dies Irae exists in such popularity today.
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    Carl Maria von Weber

    Composed first German romantic opera "The Magic Bullet"
    (1819-21) Wolf glen scene???
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    French Revolution & Paris Changes

    you know,
    Influenced many changes is Paris, which was the epicenter of the period. Heroism became important especially in Opera, which began to represent the new middle class
  • Lodoiska

    Composed by Luigi Cherubini
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    Giacomo Meyerbeer

    Jewish German composer who studied in Italy and composed French opera in Paris. Known primarily for grand opéras: Les Huguenots Overture
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    Gioacchino Rossini

    The most important opera composer in the early 19th century
    and the most famous composer in Europe in the early 19th century
  • Founding of Paris Conservatoire

    A state institution for the training of musicians. Cherubini became the Director in 1822 which is when the London Royal Academy of Music opened
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    Franz Schubert

    Composed in all genres, over 600 Lieder in his short life, composed 17 operas and Singpiele, 9 symphonies, 35 chamber works, 200 choral pieces, and more. Son of a teacher. Earned his income by teaching and publishing music. Sponsored by family and friends in lower nobility. Defined a group of people he hung out with in highschool by being called Schubertians. Most famous Lieder in Erlking, a through composed piece.
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    Gaetano Donizetti

    Italian Opera composer. composed over 70 operas
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    Vincenzo Bellini

    Italian opera composer, famous for his opera Norma (1831)
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    Hector Berlioz

    One of the most important early innovators of new orchestration and genres; French. A composer, conductor, critic, and author. His innovation creates modern orchestra sound. Inspired by literature, and composed works that were not operas, symphonies or oratorios. One of the first to stand before the orchestra and conduct. Was really good at music criticism.
  • Fidelio

    Rescue Opera composed by Beethoven. His only Opera.
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    Fanny Mendelssohn

    Older sister of Felix. They died in the same year due to a series of strokes. Given the same musical training as her brother, also a musical prodigy. She was limited by her family to continue pursuing the musical career as it would bring shame to the family. More than 100 works for solo piano, 200 lieder, 24 works for chorus. Married William Hensel in 1829, their home was a center for art, music, and learning.
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    Felix Mendelssohn

    Composer of most genres, revived JS Bach's music in Liepzig. Started an old music trend.
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    Robert Schumann

    More important as editor and promoter of music. German Composer, writer, and pianist. Studied literature: founder and editor of The New Journal for Music. 4 symphonies, 300+ lieder, a piano concerto, much chamber and piano music and a bad opera. Lived with his teacher and then married his daughter in 1840. He goes crazy in 1844 and dies at 46 12 years later. Mercury babyyyy. Loving husband who encouraged Clara, and a close friend to Mendelssohn, young Brahms, and Joseph Joachim. Anti-Semitic.
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    Frederic Chopin

    Delicate style of pianist, two words: winter wind. and composer. Called the poet of the piano. Supremely Delicate, again. Only lived to 39. Most appreciated by upper class and other musicians. Found great success in the salons of Paris. Credited with originating the modern piano style, and everything he composed used the piano. Virtuosic but poetic, not Paganini.
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    Franz Liszt

    Piano Virtuoso, writer, conductor, composer, innovator, supporter of Wagner
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    Richard Wagner

    He revolutionized opera, harmony, music in general. Beethoven is tied with him for most influential musician of the century. in 1843 he was appointed as the second Kapellmeister for the King of Saxony in Dresden. Wrote "music dramas" where all elements of the opera were treated as equal. Controlled everything and felt he was the only one who was worthy (yikes). He insisted on his own superiority and how he was better than others. Also an Anti-Semitic!!!1! Stole a wife. Invented Leitmotifs.
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    Giuseppe Verdi

    The most important Italian composer in the mid to late 19th century. Primarily an opera composer (composed 28). Composed a very popular requiem and some other stuff. Had some crazy fans and was hailed as a hero of Italy. Seriously, absolutely adored by the whole of Italy (no).
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    Richard Wagner 2

    used the leitmotiv as a connecting device to organize the opera. Pushed the boundaries of harmonies by using more harmonic chromaticism than his contemporaries. Had a special theater built in Bayreuth where there are still performances today.
  • Erlkonig

    Schubert. Based on the legend that whoever is touched by the king of the elves must DIE. The reader must imagine the details as the German doesn't translate easily. Clopping piano for horse, various onomatopoeia used to describe the text with the singer and the piano. The Erlking is brought to life in horror.
  • The Carlsbad Decrees

    Significant limit on artistic expression in Vienna, to the point where it would be impossible to have any expression at all. Directly led to Salon culture and their character pieces, as the home allowed for privacy and freedom
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    Clara Schumann

    Virtuoso pianist, composer, and least of all, wife of Roberto. Child prodigy who composed the majority of her piano concerto by age 13. Toured throughout her life often with friend and violinist Joseph Joachim. A very famous virtuoso as a kiddo. Married Robert in 1840 then proceeded to have 8 kids. Widowed in 1856, but supported herself and children. A very limited composer due to the other things going on in her life.
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    Jacques Offenbach

    Known for his Operettes: La Belle Helene, Orphee aux enfers
  • Salon Culture (Private Music)

    Domestic music became commonplace as women were expected to be able to sing and play the piano. An explosion of sheet music fueled this growth to have more private venues. A domestic fun type of music to pass the time with.
  • Bildung

    Poetic, intellectual, artistic, Spiritual but secular, beauty, and PaSsioN. If a composer has opinions about this division there would be bleed over which caused problems
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    Bedrich Smetana

    Bohemian. Best known for his programmatic cycle of 6 symphonic poems called "ma vlast" (my country). He is considered the founder of Czech music. Took part in the 1848 nationalist uprising. Also a child prodigy. Composed a Czech comic opera, The Bartered Bride, which played a large part in establishing Czech Music. Identified with Liszt and Wagner's progressive ideas. Went completely deaf by 1874. Went crazy soon after. This is why you don't choose one hobby and make it your life.
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    Louis Moreau Gottschalk

    Described by Chopin as to be the king of the pianists. An American Nationalist (that hasn't aged well). Sent to Paris to study. European recitals drew rave reviews and his playing was described as "dazzling". Too bad he died of yellow fever in Rio de Janeiro.
  • Symphonie Fantastique

    A program symphony in 5 movements. An artist trips out on opium and this is his dream. Heavily autobiographical.
  • Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung

    This is the account written by Hoffman (1776-1822) that suggested that musical ability was not something that was determined by providence, but a skill that could be considered similar to an inventor or mathematician. Praised Beethoven specifically as a genius because of his standalone "absolute" music.
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    Johannes Brahms

    The younger composer of the group, 20 in 1853 when he traveled to meet the Schumanns. This became a life long friendship. German Romantic composer who continued classical traditions, specifically in form. A scholar, one of the first editors of JS Bachs music. Became the new "classical" where strings were the focus, and basically copied the classical periods homework. He favored absolute music. When he began to write symphonies they were compared to Beethoven, much to his displeasure.
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    Georges Bizet

    Blended styles into Opera comique with Carmen
  • Opera in this Century

    Opera shared popularity with instrumental music, which was defined into national styles. Italian Opera was the big boi for the previous century in all but France. Romantic composers began to draw on exotic plots for their operas.
  • French Opera

    Grand Opera: Serious historical dramas with spectacular effects
    Opera Comique: operas with spoken word
    Lyric Opera: Stylistically between the above.
    Operette: Slapstick comedy opera.
  • German Opera

    Singspiel had been the main type of German opera of the classical period. Singspiels = French opéra comique
    German opera became muy serious
    Richard Wagner’s music dramas (1850s) dominated later German opera Wagner’s operas were large productions; an influence from French Grand Opera
  • Italian Opera

    Italian opera dominated the 19th century, and the two types were still important, Opera Seria: serious, Opera Buffa: comical. Both contained the bel canto style (literally beautiful singing). Rossini, Donizetti, and Bellini mark the high point of bel canto.
    Tragic Opera was also a thing.
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    Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky

    Composer of several famous ballet, Russian of course. Studied classically in the West. His Russian contemporaries did not support him or his music.
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    Antonin Dvorak

    Nationalist from Czechoslovakia. Eight years younger than Brahms, they were friends. Took an interest into American folk music when invited to head up the National Conservatory in NYC. Studied Black American cultures and the music of Native Americans. Angered people when he said that the future of American music would lie within African American culture. Discovered that Native American music and AA music was based upon a pentatonic scale. Used to compose "New World" Symphony.
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    Edvard Grieg

    Norway, Nationalist, Peer Gynt, incidental music, a famous piano concerto.
  • Mighty Five Russians

    Mily Balakirev
    Alexander Borodin
    Cesar Cui
    Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
    Modest Musorgsky
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    Giacomo Puccini

    Some of the last Great Operas written in the bel canto tradition were by this guy. Most important Italian composer after Verdi. Started composing seriously at 17 years old for the organ. After hearing a Verdi he decided opera. A great fascist in case you thought he wouldn't be. He also wrote Madame Butterfly which is sad as hell what in the world dude.
  • Italy do be a country now

    still a kingdom tho
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    Jean Sibelius

    Finland Nationalist
    Finlandia, 1899 (tone poem cycle)