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Rise and Fall of Asylums

  • 1247

    Bethlem Hospital established

  • Bicetre establised as orphanage

  • Hopital General, Paris established

    Bicetre made part of HG.
  • Bethlem renovated and expanded

  • Period: to

    Bethlem is a star tourist attraction

    By the 1750s Bethlem was accepting tens of thousands of paying visitors a year, making it a top tourist attraction for Londoners
  • St Luke's Hospital for Lunatics founded for incurable lunatics

    a complementary hospital to Bethlem
  • . The Pennsylvania Hospital founded in Philadelphia

    special dedicated wards for the mad
  • Pinel begins working at Bicetre

  • A group of Quakers, led by William Tuke, establish the York Retreat (Britain)

    small community living in a quiet country house: a combination of rest, talk, and manual work, while minimising restraints and cultivating rationality and moral strength.
  • Bicetre patients freed from shackles

    more humane treatments began
  • Period: to

    Marquis de Sade imprisoned at Bicetre

  • County Asylums Act (Britain)

    permitted, but did not compel establishment of an asylum in each county.
  • Inquiry started into conditions for patients at Bethlem

  • First asylum in Canada established in St. John NB

    named Provincial Lunatic asylum. For updates see wikipedia
  • Law of 1838 (France)

    After abuses of lettres de cachet, under pressure from reform doctors, this law mandated every French district to set up a lunatic asylum; provided a framework for the assistance, care, and protection of people with mental illness; and eliminated the possibility of arbitrary detention.
  • Lunacy Act & another Asylum Act established in Britain

    required every county to have a madhouse; formally named the mad as "patients" for the first time.
  • opening of the Provincial Lunatic Asylum in Toronto

    renamed Asylum for the Insane in 1871, Hospital for the Insane in 1905, and simply Ontario Hospital, Toronto as of 1919. In 1996, it became Queen Street Mental Health Centre and finally, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) in 1998
  • British Columbia passes the Insane Asylums Act

    persons deemed to be “lunatics” could be committed to an insane asylum upon certificates issued by doctors who examined the patient in each other’s presence.
  • Nellie Bly enters the Women's Lunatic Asylum in New York

  • The US housed 150,000 patients in mental hospitals