Progression of Educational Technology

  • Dec 16, 1500

    Toffler's First Wave

    http://www.muthalnaidoo.co.za/book-reviews-othermenu-87/289-alvin-toffler-qthe-third-waveq The Agricultural Age began around 8000 B.C. and flourished on the Earth until between A.D. 1650-1750. The Agricultural Age brought about ways of cultivating plants and domesticating animals in one area. This age also brought about the rise of villages and societies located in one general area.
  • Period: Dec 16, 1500 to

    Agricultural Age

    The Agricultural Age began around 8000 B.C. and flourished on the Earth until between A.D. 1650-1750. The Agricultural Age brought about ways of cultivating plants and domesticating animals in one area. This age also brought about the rise of villages and societies located in one general area.
  • Toffler's Second Wave

    http://wavesofthefuture.net/wave-industrial-fossil-fuels-oil-crisis.shtml Set off around the time of the Industrial Revolution itself, the Industrial Age began sometime between A.D. 1650 and 1750 and has not fully ran out of steam. The Industrial Age is characterized by the development of factories and industry that gave rise to machinery and mass production.
  • Period: to

    Industrial Age

    Set off around the time of the Industrial Revolution itself, the Industrial Age began sometime between A.D. 1650 and 1750 and has not fully ran out of steam. The Industrial Age is characterized by the development of factories and industry that gave rise to machinery and mass production.
  • Society and Culture: Urbanization

    http://www.theusaonline.com/people/urbanization.htm The trend in American culture and society was the movement of populations to the cities. With the development of industry more and more people moved to industrial centers.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Blood Compatibility

    http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1930/landsteiner-bio.html In his study Landsteiner discovered and develloped his theory about the compatibility of blood within humans. This would later lead to blood transfusion.
  • Technology: Thomas Edison, alkaline battery

    http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Edison's_Alkaline_Battery Although the date is not definate, Thomas Edison developed the alkaline battery in the year 1903. The battery relied on the reaction between iron and nickel electrodes with the potassium hydroxide. Used mainly for delivery trucks and vehicles in the city, Edison later redesigned the battery for more efficient power.
  • Society and Culture: Baseball as America's Passtime

    http://www.livestrong.com/article/353228-the-history-of-baseball-in-the-1900s/ The love of baseball develloped in the 1900s. Baseball would develop into a cultural icon of American sports.
  • Work: Benjamin Holt, Tractor

    http://www.farmcollector.com/steam-engines/company-history/invention-of-the-crawler-tractor.aspx Using steam technology had not been successful in working in the peat bogs, so Holt made some changes to the wheels and replaced them with wooden track shoes. Considered a change in technology, this development laid the work for further developments in farm work.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Existence of Vitamins

    http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/271528/Sir-Frederick-Gowland-Hopkins Hopkins is credited with the discovery of vitamins as important to nutrition. Later in his career Hopkins was awarded the Nobel Prize.
  • Education: Maria Montessori

    http://www.montessori-ami.org/montessori/maria.htm Montessori was the first female to obtain a medical degree in Italy. On this date Montessori opened her first school. Her method involved students learning at their own pace and included students learning through "games".
  • Work/Business: James Spangler, Vacuum Cleaner

    http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/298.html
    While not a philosophy of business, the development of the vacuum cleaner revolutionized the cleaning industry and gave rise to a new labor force. This innovation made cleaning a new job for which workers could make money.
  • Education: Edmund Burke Huey

    ftp://yearbook.literacyresearchassociation.org/57th_Yearbook/Hartman.pdf On this date Edmund Huey published his work The Psycology and Pedagogy of Reading. This book is considered the foremost research on reading. Huey discussed fluency, comprehension, and instructional methods.
  • Technology: Lee de Forest

    http://www.leedeforest.org/The_Audion.html de Forest received his patent on this date for the Audion, a device that was able to take radio waves and convert them to sound. This led to the development of amplitude-modulated radio, or what we know as AM radio.
  • Education: John Dewey, How We Think

    http://www.poeticmind.co.uk/research/john-dewey-how-we-think-summary-review-gil-dekel-phd/ In his work Dewey asserted that some human activities are natural and cannot be taught. Thinking to Dewey was natural automatic and could not be taught but could be developed.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Coolidge, X-Ray

    http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/coolidge.html Coolidge developed the first efficient tube used for X-Ray. His development would lead to the modern use of the X-Ray as a way to treat patients.
  • Society and Culture: Growth of Labor Unions

    http://www.nber.org/books/wolm24-1 During the 1910s the growth of industry also saw the growth of labor unions. With most work coming in industry, workers formed unions to force better conditions and wages.
  • Society and Culture: Pop Culture

    http://www.pophistorydig.com/?tag=pop-culture-1910s With the development of different media, the 1910s developed a pop culture. Radio, magazines, and television led to a growth in popular culture during this decade.
  • Technology: Neon, Georges Claude

    http://inventors.about.com/od/qstartinventions/a/neon.htm Displayed for the first time on this date in Paris, Claude developed the first neon light. Neon is a gaseous element found in the atmosphere that when reacts with electrical discharge will glow. Claude patented his tubes and sold his first to an American car dealer for $24,000.00.
  • Education: Edward Thorndike, Education: A First Book

    http://faculty.coe.uh.edu/smcneil/cuin6373/idhistory/thorndike.html Thorndike published this work as a summary for analyzing how teachers teach. He insisted that teachers really focus on how they teach by exploring educational psycology and sociology. he also stressed the importance of classroom management.
  • Work/Business: The Ford Assemblly Line

    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dt13as.html
    Considered one of America's foremost business developments, the Ford Assembly Line used moving parts and laborers to mass produce products at a quicker rate. It also brought the concept of specialization.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Cardiology

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/clc.4960140716/pdf Paul White is credited with being the Father of American cardiology. In 1913 he became one of the first American cardiologists.
  • Work/Business: Panama Canal Opens

    http://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/PanamaCanal
    The opening of the Panama Canal was a big events in the eyes of the shipping industry. This new canal allowed for quicker shipping between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
  • Medical Breakthroughs:

    http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwi/VolISGO/Sec3Ch03.htm Signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson, the purpose was to devote government funds and energy into the civil medical profession.
  • Technology: Edwin H. Armstrong, Superhet Tuner

    http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/radio_history/gtnames/edwin-armstrong-superheterodyne-radio.php Initially developed before World War I, the superheterodyne tuner gave users the ability to tune radios into different sources. This function allowed for radios to change between different radio stations.
  • Work/Business: Prohibition

    http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/00492/
    Prohibition started in 1920 and had major effects on the workforce of America. It gave rise to alcohol runners and a thriving underground business.
  • Society and Culture: The Decade of Dance

    http://socialdance.stanford.edu/syllabi/jazz_age.htm With new ways of listening to music, people around the country took to new forms of dancing. The dancing developed into a national interest and spawned some of the classical dances of the time.
  • Society and Culture: Women's Right to Vote

    http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=63 The culture of America had been moving towards women's rights for a long time, and in 1920 the 19th Amendment was ratified. This amendment granted suffrage to women in America.
  • Technology: KDKA, PIttsburgh

    http://explorepahistory.com/hmarker.php?markerId=1-A-30F
    http://pittsburgh.cbslocal.com/2010/04/01/kdka-history/ Hailed as the world's first radio station, KDKA began broadcasting on this date. In its first broadcast the station gave updates on the presidential election.
  • Education: William A. McCall, How to Measure

    http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2209/McCall-William-1891-1982.html In How to Measure, McCall explained the theory of measuring student intelligence. McCall was also considered to be an expert in developing to test to evaluate student learning and achievement.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Insulin Used

    http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/insulin/discovery-insulin.html Insulin was used for the first time to treat diabetes in a young patient. The success found in Toronto quickly spread around the world as a treatment for diabetes.
  • Education: Scopes Monkey Trial

    http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/scopes/scopes.htm This is considered one of the most important trials in United States educational history. In Dayton, Tennessee John Scopes was put on trial for teaching evolution in his biology class. At that time in Tennessee teaching evolution was a violation of the law.
  • Technology: Robert H. Goddard, Rocket Fuel

    http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/about/history/dr_goddard.html By some accounts this flight was as significant as the Wright Brother's flight at Kitty Hawk. The development of liquid fuel and other develoopments by Goddard fueled the development of the American mission to explore space.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Fleming, penicillin

    http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1945/fleming-bio.html Through his work Fleming discovered penicillin and its use as an antibacterial. This medical breakthrough has had lasting effects on the medical world.
  • Work/Business: The Great Crash of 1929

    http://www.themoneyalert.com/stockmarketcrashof1929.html
    This event in history could be seen as a major economic event that had lasting effects on the work force of America. It also led to the start of the Great Depression and the worst economic times in American history.
  • Work/Business: Smoot-Hawley Tariff

    http://economyincrisis.org/content/impact-smoot-hawley-tariff-great-depression
    Making the stock market crash worse, the Smoot-Hawley Tariff further sent American business into depression with tariffs placed on imported goods, especially agricultural goods.
  • Education: Willard Waller, Sociology of Teaching

    http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Willard_W._Waller.aspx Willard Waller was applied the concept of Sociology to teaching. He proposed the idea of relationships in education between the teachers and others around them. He also explored possible stereotypes that teachers carry with them.
  • Technology: Edwin H. Armstrong, FM Radio

    http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Edwin_H._Armstrong Trying to improve the sound quality of the current AM radio, Armstrong developed frequency-modulated radio. Because AM was often affected by the Earth's atmosphere and the sheer number of AM stations, it often lacked a quality sound. Frequency-modulated radio produced a higher quality sound.
  • Society and Culture: Fireside Chats

    http://www.history.com/topics/fireside-chats Using the nations foremost form of entertainment as a tool, Franklin D. Roosevelt connected to the American people through his Fireside Chats. His chats spanned from 1933 to 1944 and included over 30 speeches.
  • Technology: Sir Robert Watson-Watt, Radar

    http://www.radarpages.co.uk/people/watson-watt/watson-watt.htm First tested on this date, Watson-Watt used radio wave technology to develop a radar able to detect incoming objects. Starting out as a meteorologist hoping to detect thunderstorms, he developed technology that would be used militarily to detect incoming aircraft.
  • Education: Maria Montessori, The Secret of Childhood

    http://schugurensky.faculty.asu.edu/moments/1936montessori.html Continuing her research in childhood education, Montessori published The Secret of Childhood as a way to help adults and teachers help children develop. Montessori asserted that children were mysterious and needed help to develop. She also promoted the development of the whole child.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Blood Banks

    http://www.pbs.org/wnet/redgold/innovators/bio_fantus.html Dr. Bernard Fantus started the idea of collecting blood as a way to provide for blood transfusions. The idea started in Chicago and developed into the modern-day blood bank.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Vaccine for Typhus

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002339/ Spread by lice and fleas, in 1937 a vaccine was discovered to stop the spread of the deadly disease.
  • Work/Business: The Ballpoint Pen

    http://www.cosmopolis.ch/english/cosmo30/history_ballpoint_pen.htm
    Although a small invention, in the context of the business world the ballpoint pen has made business transactions easier and more efficient.
  • Society and Culture: The 1939 World's Fair

    http://xroads.virginia.edu/~1930s/display/39wf/frame.htm The 1939 World's Fair was known as a look into the future. The fair became an icon of the era and demonstrated new technologies that would be developed in the near future.
  • Society and Culture: Rations

    http://www.ameshistoricalsociety.org/exhibits/events/rationing.htm With so much man power and so many goods needed to supply the troops in the war, the United States began to ration goods to the American public. Not only was food rationed, but the production of some goods stopped all together.
  • Technology: Harvard Mark I

    http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/markI/markI_intro.html Developed during World War II, the Harvard Mark I was the largest electromechanical calculator ever built. It was also the automatic digital calculator built in the United States. The Mark I could perform the four basic mathematic functions in addition to transcendental functions .
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Streptomycin

    http://www.albertschatzphd.com/?cat=articles&subcat=streptomycin&itemnum=001 The discovery of streptomycin was another breakthrough in the fight against bacterial infections. It would be used against a battery of bacteria.
  • Education: G.I. Bill

    http://www.gibill.va.gov/benefits/history_timeline/index.html While not a change in any educational theory, this bill made it easier for American soldiers to receive educational benefits. The most current updates allow for benefits to troops and their families.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Flu Vaccine

    http://www.immunizationinfo.org/vaccines/influenza Having had a world wide epidemic caused by influenze, a vaccination was developed to stop the spread of the deadly virus. While not a cure, the vaccine does slow down the spread of the virus.
  • Society and Culture: The Working Woman

    http://www.archives.gov/atlanta/education/resources-by-state/wwii-women.html The roles of women changed during and after World War II. After the war women would play a more prominent role in the American work force.
  • Work/Business: T-Groups, Participatory Training

    http://schugurensky.faculty.asu.edu/moments/1946tgroup.html
    Training Group, or T-Group, Training focused on the education of adults in the workplace. It focused on communication skills, conflict management, and team building.
  • Work/Business: Peter Drucker, Corporations

    http://www.druckerinstitute.com/link/about-peter-drucker/ Peter Drucker developed the modern view of the importance of the corporation to America. In fact he view the corporation as the representative institution of our society.
  • Technology: Percy Spencer, Microwave

    http://www.massmoments.org/moment.cfm?mid=210 Standing next to a magnetron, Spencer noticed the effects the magnetron had on the chocolate in his pocket. Later testing the magnetron's effect on popcorn, Spencer used his new knowledge to develop the first microwave oven. The first oven stood at five and a half feet tall, weighed 750 pounds, and cost $5,000.00.
  • Education: Ralph W. Tyler, Curriculum and Instruction

    http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2517/Tyler-Ralph-W-1902-1994.html Ralph Tyler published his book as support for curriculum in schools. Tyler asserted that a school's curriculum should take in to account three factors: learners, values of society, and subject matter.
  • Work/Business: Feigenbaum, Quality Control

    http://vectorstudy.com/management-gurus/armand-feigenbaum Feigenbaum developed the concept of quality control in regards to constantly improving the quality of products. He also develloped the theory that processes must also be updated continuously to provide for better services.
  • Society and Culture: Continued Race Issues

    http://www.understandingrace.org/history/society/post_war_economic_boom.html Although blacks had served along whites in the war, soldiers were returning home to face race issues. Mexicans, Asians, and other races were also targeted.
  • Society and Culture: American Sports

    http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3468302122.html The rise of television as a media in the United States led to popularity of sports across the nation. With so many sports being broadcast, sports stars reached a new social level and popularity.
  • Education: Brown vs. Board of Education

    http://www.uscourts.gov/EducationalResources/ConstitutionResources/LegalLandmarks/HistoryOfBrownVBoardOfEducation.aspx A monumental decision by the United States Supreme Court, the court determined that educational facilities that are separate are not equal. This was the first step in integrating schools in the United States.
  • Texas Instruments, Transistor Radio

    http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/company/history/timeline/semicon/1950/docs/54regency.htm Instead of the traditional use of vacuum tubes to amplify radio signals, Texas Instruments developed the silicon and germanium technology to develop transistors. Transistors produced a better and louder sound. This led to the development of the Regency TR-1, the first transistor radio.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: First Open Heart Surgery

    http://www.mayoclinic.org/tradition-heritage/first-open-heart-surgery.html The Mayo-Gibbon machine functioned as the patient's heart while the surgery explored a malfunction in the heart. The machine directed the patients blood, allowing the doctors to work in a dry field.
  • Toffler's Third Wave

    http://www.skypoint.net/members/mfinley/toffler.htm Beginning around the year 1955 and extending to the present date, the Information Age is characterized by the explosion of technology that has rendered traditional forms of industrial production obsolete. This age is also responsible for the rise of the computer and other technological innovations.
    Because of the continued use of and disemination of information, I believe we are still in Toffler's Third Wave
  • Period: to

    Information Age

    Beginning around the year 1955 and extending to the present date, the Information Age is characterized by the explosion of technology that has rendered traditional forms of industrial production obsolete. This age is also responsible for the rise of the computer and other technological innovations.
  • Work/Business: Eisenhower Creates Interstates

    https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/interstate/homepage.cfm The creation of the interstate system had short term and long term effects on business and work. First it created a work force to build the system, and then the end result was a better and more efficient manner of transporting goods across the country.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: First Artificial Heart

    http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/Apg-Ban/Artificial-Heart.html#b Inserted in a dog the first time, the first artificial heart allowed the dog to live for 90 minutes after the surgery. Using the information from the surgery, the heart was later perfected.
  • Education: Little Rock Nine

    http://www.centralhigh57.org/The_Little_Rock_Nine.html Although not a major educational theory, this event started the desegregation of schools. While this coulod be seen as social change, this event is one of America's true major edcuational events.
  • Technology: Sputnik I, Space Age

    http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/ Although a singular event, the launch of Sputnik I ushered in the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union. This event, in addition to the Cold War, had far reaching ramifications on all aspects of life.
  • Society and Culture: The Generation Gap

    http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Generation_gap.html The Generation Gap was evident in the 1960s as the younger generation was of the age to be drafted into the military, but not old enough to vote. There was a move from conservative thinking in the younger generation.
  • Society and Culture: The Feminist Movement

    http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/evans/his135/Events/womenslliberation/womensliberation.htm Led by feminists like Betty Friedan, women in America were searching for equal rights with men. This movement encompassed sexual stigmas, reproductive rights, and gender equity.
  • Technology: Theodore Maiman, The Laser

    http://laserinventor.com/bio.html Theodore Maiman developed the ruby laser which is the first optical or light laser. Perhaps the greatest contribution of Maiman was the fact that lasers could be constructed easily and could be used for practical purposes.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: The First Oral Polio Vaccine

    http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/polio.html Although the polio vaccine had been developed through injection, the vaccine was made into a ingested vaccine.
  • Work/Business: McDonald's University

    http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/corporate_careers/training_and_development/hamburger_university.html McDonald's revolutionized the training of their employees by developing the first corporate university. On this date the first group of employees graduated.
  • Technology: Telstar, Communication Satellite

    http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/about/history/telstar_anniversary.html Known as the beginning of global television coverage, the launch of the Telstar Communication Satellite allowed for the relay of television signals from Europe to the United States. The satellite was roughly the size of a beach ball and weighed 171 pounds. Not only did television improve, but all forms of communications.
  • Education: The Conditions of Learning

    http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/conditions-learning.html Learning theorist Robert Gagne developed his theory of instruction based on the thinking that there are different levels of learning. He also contended that instruction should be in sequential steps.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: First Heart Transplant

    http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-human-heart-transplant Performed in South Africa, surgeons performed the first heart transplant. Despite dying 18 days later, the heart worked normally until the patient's death.
  • Work/Business: The Cubicle

    http://www.hermanmiller.com/research/research-summaries/forward-thinking-why-the-ideas-from-the-man-who-invented-cubicles-still-make-sense.html To revolutionize the office space and create a more private and efficient work environment, the designers at Herman Miller designed the cubicle. This was to create a more efficient use space.
  • Society and Culture: Affirmative Action

    http://www.understandingrace.org/history/gov/begin_end_affirm.html In this decade women and minorities began to take discrimination issues to the courts in hopes of seeking equal opportunities for employment and other benefits.
  • Society and Culture: Environmental Movement

    http://www.earthday.org/earth-day-history-movement The 1970s saw a focus on the environment and the damage that humans had done with various forms of pollution. Earth Day capitalized on a growing idea and turned into a focus on the environmental policy.
  • Technology: Ray Tomlinson, Email

    http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120364591 Although the exact date is not published, in late 1971 Ray Tomlinson developed the first use of electronic mail. Using a network called ARPANET, Tomlinson was able to send messages from one computer to another. By using the @ symbol, he was also able to send emails to multiple computers.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: War on Cancer

    http://legislative.cancer.gov/history/phsa/1971 This legislation developed the National Cancer Program and gave importance to cancer. It also budgeted money for cancer research.
  • Education: Title IX Passed

    http://www.titleix.info/ While many associate Title IX with sports participation only, Title IX covers much more in terms of gender equity. This law requires that any federally funded program must excerise equal treatment of males and females.
  • Work/Business: Black and Scholes Pricing Model

    http://bradley.bradley.edu/~arr/bsm/pg01.html Two economists, Black and Scholes, developed a pricing model for market pricing. Still used, it gives an accurate price prediction.
  • Technology: Westar Satellite

    http://space.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/Programs/westar.html Western Union launched the satellite Westar in 1974, and the Public Broadcasting Service started in 1978. PBS would go on to serve as a medium for many educational programs.
  • Work/Business: Ford Signs ERISA

    http://www.pbgc.gov/about/who-we-are/pg/president-ford-signing-erisa-of-1974.html In hopes of ensuring sound corporate pension plans, Ford signs this law establishing standards by which the financial managers must follow.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: World's First Test Tube Baby

    http://history1900s.about.com/od/medicaladvancesissues/a/testtubebaby.htm As a way to combat infertility, the technology was used to develop babies through other means. Lesley Brown was the first mother to birth a baby through this technique of collecting the eggs from the mother and mixing with the sperm of the father.
  • Education: Carter Creates Dept. of Education

    http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=31543 President Jimmy Carter created the Department of Education to increase the attention paid to education in the United States. This law started the theory of educational accountability and demanded attention to the use of tax dollars for public education.
  • Work/Business: Chrysler Bailout

    http://www.ritholtz.com/blog/2008/11/looking-at-the-1980-chrysler-bailout/ Trying to save the business from bankruptcy and trying to save jobs, President Jimmy Carter signed the bailout to reorganize the Chrysler Corporation.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Eradication of Small Pox

    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm79sp.html One of the most feared diseases was considered eradicated by the World Health Organization. Small pox was responsible for the death of millions since the Age of European Exploration.
  • Society and Culture: The Era of the Computer

    http://www.computerhope.com/history/198090.htm The 1980s saw a big jump in computer technology. Computers were being mass produced for home use and used as devices for communication.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Discovery of HIV/AIDS

    http://www.avert.org/aids-history-america.htm The discovery of HIV/AIDS was the breakthrough of the 1980's as it began to take its toll on populations around the world. The disease is still considered a major medical epidemic.
  • Technology: Personal Computers, MS-DOS

    http://inventors.about.com/od/computersoftware/a/Putting-Microsoft-On-The-Map.htm With the help of Bill Gates of Microsoft, IBM introduced its first personal computer with an operating system. MS-DOS was developed for IBM, but Bill Gates retained the rights to market the system outside of IBM and computer history was made.
  • Education: Nation at Risk Published

    http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/a-nation-at-risk/ Published by the National Commision on Excellence in Education, this report brought to the attention the improvement needed in the educational system. One part of the publication recommended the use of rigorous standards to guide instruction.
  • Education: David Kolb, Experiential Learning

    http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-explrn.htm Kolb's learning theory states that people learn from their experiences. This happens best when students are given the oppportunity to acquire and apply knowledge and skills in a contextual manner.
  • Technology: Windows 1.0

    http://windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows/history While not the first operating system developed for computers, the development of Windows 1.0 changed the way computer users interacted with their computers. Windows provided a graphical user interface and multitasking capabilities. Although Windows was considered crude and full of issues, it was developed in the most widely used operating system today.
  • Work/Business: Black Monday Crash

    http://www.stock-market-crash.net/1987-crash/ At that time in history, the stock market took its largest one day fall. The value of the fall was upwards of $500 billion.
  • Society and Culture: The Fall of the Berlin Wall

    http://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/short-history/berlinwall The battle between the democratic west and the communist east finally ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall. It was an iconic symbol of opression in its time.
  • Work/Business: Worldwide Coffee

    http://philippines.starbucks.com/en-US/_About+Starbucks/History+of+Starbucks.htm The concept of coffee expanded as the most well known coffee chain began to open stores all across the nation.
  • Work/Business: Small Business Boom

    http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1990-07-24/features/9003020293_1_sidewalk-parental-profits The 1990's saw a boom in the development of small businesses across America in all areas of the country.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Hepatitis Vaccine Developed

    http://www.who.int/vaccines/en/hepatitisa.shtml A vaccine was designed to prevent the spread of Hepatitis A. This was significant in stopping the spread of the disease in lower socioeconomic areas.
  • Education: City Academy, Charter Schools

    http://www.cityacademy.org/ An educational issue that still dominates American education, the charter school theory started in Minnesota in 1992. The concept of a charter school is a school that receives public funds and has certain flexibilities to meet a certain goal set out in the school's charter.
  • Society and Culture: Don't Ask Dont' Tell

    http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-201_162-20108690.html A law was passed in 1993 that allowed for homosexuals to enroll in the military as long as they did not tell anyone they were gay, and no one would ask them if they were gay. This legislation was repealed in 2011.
  • Society and Culture: The First Gun Control

    http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/brady-bill-signed-into-law The first attempt at gun control in America was a success as Bill Clinton signed the Brady Bill to into law. The bill required a mandatory five day background check before anyone could buy a gun. It has since expired.
  • Education: The Bell Curve

    http://reason.com/archives/1995/03/01/cracked-bell Developed by Hernstein and Murray, The Bell Curve stated that intelligence provided a better prediction to a person success than socioeconomic status. The theory was also used to explain that all achievement would fall on a prescribed graph shaped like a curve.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: Dolly the Sheep

    http://www.avert.org/aids-history-america.htm Dolly the Sheep became famous for being the first mammal cloned from an adult cell. Although this was a major medical breakthrough, it was met with stern opposition.
  • Technology: Deep Blue vs. Garry Kasparov

    http://www.chesscorner.com/games/deepblue/deepblu.htm A computer generated chess program was able to defeat world chess champion Garry Kasparov. The computer program, which Kasparov had previously beaten, seemingly out smarted Kasparov. Kasparov admitted to playing non-theoretical moves to throw off the computer's reasoning.
  • Medical Breakthrough: Robotic Surgery

    http://www.roboticoncology.com/history/ The da Vinci Surgery System was the first robotic system approved by the FDA. The advancement lowered the infection rate and replicated the movements of the surgeon controlling the robot.
  • Technology: Robotic Toys

  • Work/Business: ENRON Scandal

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/1780075.stm One of the biggest scandals in business history, the ENRON company was found to be using improper business methods. Many corporate officers were jailed and many investors lost their money.
  • Technology: Toyota Prius, Hyrbid Vehicle

    http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2006/03/06/8370702/ Toyota mass produced the first hybrid vehicles to help with the rising costs of fuel and to help with the environment. This development mixed the need for fuel and the need for electricity.
  • Society and Culture: Facebook

    http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/president-obama Facebook became an icon of American society and culture in America. It has linked people socially all over the globe.
  • Medical Breakthroughs: First Partial Face Transplant

    http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/06/science/06prof.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 Using newer techniques and improved technology, Dubernard performed the first partial face transplant. The transplant opened the door for other facial transplants.
  • Society and Culture: Barack Obama

    http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/president-obama As a show of how race culture has come in the United States, Barack Obama was elected as the first African-American president of the United States of America.
  • Work/Business: Obama Care Signed

    http://obamacarefacts.com/obamacarebill.php This landmark legislation required business owners to provide health care for employees in an attempt to provide insurance for all citizens.