Poverty and public health

Timeline created by notme123
In History
  • Invention of the S-trap

    By Alexander Cummings. Sealed the toilet bowl.
  • Size and distribution of population

    33% of population lived in towns
  • Southwark water company

    Replaced wooden pipes with cast iron
  • Use of steam engines to pump water

  • Chelsea waterworks company

    First company to install a sand filtration system to purify water from Thames
  • Joseph Lister microscope

    Built microscope with x1000 magnification enabled observation of microorganisms, added to germ theorey of disease
  • Cholera epidemic

    Caused by contaminated water supply.
    Killed 31,000
  • Temporary Board of Health

    Advised local government areas to set up boards to deal with issues at grassroots level. In response to cholera epidemic and riots.
  • Cholera Acts

    Allow local authorities to enforce measures and finance them with poor rates.
  • Cholera phobia riots

    Rioted against the local medical men, belief that patients were murdered for dissection
  • The moral and physical condition of the working classes of Manchester

    Dr James Kay, demonstrated connection between dirt and diet with disease. Inspiration for later reformers.
  • The Representation of the People Act

    Greater representation for growing industrial towns in North.
  • The Municipal Corporations Act

    Ended system of closed corporations (councillors reappointing themselves). Councils could assume control of paving, sewerage etc. Required private act of parliament - expensive.
  • Introduction of Civil Registration

    Registration of births, deaths and marriages.
    Urban birth rates higher than death rates.
  • Typhus epidemic

    Living in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions with little clean water lead to body lice which spread typhus
  • Road to Wigan Pier published

    George Orwell. Documented conditions of working classes in Yorkshire and Lancashire
  • Grand Junction waterworks company

    Built steam pumping station to filter Thames water
  • Typhus epidemic

    Living in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions with little clean water lead to body lice which spread typhus
  • Report on the sanitary condition of the labouring population of Great Britain

    Focused on London first then extended, carried out by Chadwick. Publication refused as criticised water companies, medical professionals and local administration. Chadwick published it on his own.
  • Report on the sanitary condition of large towns and populous districts

    42/50 towns had bad drainage
    30/50 had poor water supply
    Report contained recommendations of local sanitary districts and powers to central government.
  • Health of Towns Association established

    Central committee in London. Carried out propaganda campaign for public health legislation.
  • A Royal Commission for Enquiry into the State of Large Towns and Populous Districts

    Investigated living conditions of the poor
  • Metropolitan Building Act

    Required new construction built within 30ft of common sewer. Without building inspector many disregarded rule.
  • Report of Bradford Woolcombers sanitary committee

    Very poor conditions of Woolcombers as worked at home, average life expectancy of 14. Set up own committee.
  • Nuisance Removals Act

    Justices could prosecute those responsible for nuisance properties
  • The Baths and Warehouses Act

    Local authorities could provide baths and warehouses out of public money.
  • Typhus epidemic

    Living in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions with little clean water lead to body lice which spread typhus.
    Killed 10,000 in north-west England
  • Town Improvement Clauses Act

    Rights of towns to lay drainage. Legalised discharge of sewage into sea.
  • Mary Barton published

    By Elizabeth Gaskell. Book describes poor living conditions.
  • General Board of Health set up

    Permissive act, Reported to parliament. Local authorities empowered to set up local boards of health, appoint a medical officer. Finance projects by levying local rates.
  • The Public Health Act

    Implementation of act overshadowed by cholera epidemic and subsequent board of health. Beginning of state intervention in public health.
  • Size and distribution of population

    50% lived in towns
  • The Common Lodging Houses Act

    All lodging houses to be registered and inspected by police. Rarely enforced.
  • Invention of the improved water closet

    George Jennings. By 1850 all new builds required flushing toilet.
  • Cholera epidemic

    Caused by contaminated water supply.
    Killed 62,000 people
  • The Times newspaper and the Great Stink

    Newspaper headed a campaign for effective sewerage in London.
  • The Local Government Act & Public Health Act

    Abolished General Board of Health, powers given to the local government act office. Medical department of the Privy Council set up. Local Boards of Health had powers to take preventative action and appoint officials.
  • Louis Pasteur experiment

    Showed microorganisms lived in air, added to germ theorey of disease
  • Cholera epidemic

    Killed 20,000
  • The Sanitary Act

    Sanitary powers to all local boards. Central government could step into to Improvement work. Local authorities had powers to demolish slum housing.
  • Parliamentary Reform Act

    Gave vote to working class men.
  • The Artisans and Labourers Dwellings Act

    Local councils power to force landlords to repair unsanitary houses, or remove them.
  • Royal Commission on public health

    Revealed improved conditions since Chadwick's report
  • Local Government Board set up

    Consolidated function of the local government act office, registrar, medical department and Poor Law board.
  • The Public Health Act

    Every part of the country to have a public health authority with 1 medical officer and 1 sanitary inspector. Local authorities had powers on public amenities.
  • The Artisans and Labourers Dwellings Improvements Act

    Councils had power to clear whole districts not just single houses.
  • Size and distribution of population

    72% lived in towns
  • Start of Second Boer war

  • Development of sewage treatment

    Biological treatment to ensure safety
  • The Public Health Act

    Consolidated previous legislation. Local authorities had majority control over water supply.
  • Food and Drugs Act

    Local authorities had control over slaughter houses and food adulteration.