Post 1900s Era (1930-2000s)

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    Paul Gauguin

    French artist who used primitivism.
  • John Philip Sousa

    John Philip Sousa
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    John Philip Sousa

    Bandmaster known for his marches, failed at making operas. Conducted the "president's own" marine band.
  • Erik Satie

    Erik Satie
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    Erik Satie

    Composer who used Undisguised avant-garde.
  • Charles Ives

    Charles Ives
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    Charles Ives

    Ives father shaped the way he heard things. They would harmonize in the wrong key, etc. Was a composer for the Aleatoric genre. Wrote "The Question." Very misunderstood.
  • Wanda Landowska

    Wanda Landowska
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    Wanda Landowska

    Harpsichordist, Polish born.
  • Igor Stravinsky

    Igor Stravinsky
  • Robert Nathaiel Dett

    Robert Nathaiel Dett
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    Igor Stravinsky

    Russian Composer who write Rite of Spring in 1913. He used primitivism. Was obsessed with the number 13.
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    Robert Nathaiel Dett

    Canadian-American Black Composer. Specialized in piano.
  • Edgar Varese

    Edgar Varese
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    Edgar Varese

    Had visions for a new musical timbre and modern orchestration techniques. Minimized the use of strings (see non-tonal genre)
  • Florence Price

    Florence Price
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    Florence Price

    Born in Little Rock , Died in Chicago. First female black composer, piano prodigy, first composition at 11 years old. She presented herself as Mexican to avoid discrimination, attended New England Conservatory. Career flourished in Chicago, began composing in 1910.
  • William Grant Still

    William Grant Still
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    William Grant Still

    American Composer
  • Henry Cowell

    Henry Cowell
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    Henry Cowell

    John Cage's teacher. Invented Chance Music and coined the term tone cluster.
  • George Gershwin

    George Gershwin
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    George Gershwin

    American Composer, classical fused with jazz and popular music. Wrote Rhapsody in Blue.
  • Duke Ellington

    Duke Ellington
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    Duke Ellington

    American Jazz Composer, piano player
  • Aaron Copland

    Aaron Copland
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    Undisguised avant-garde

    During this time period bold expressions against Romanticism were going on by artists like Dali and Duchamp. Satie and Faure were publicly spoofing the Wagnerian style in the attempt of stepping out of the romantic aesthetic. There as delight in Emotional Opulence.
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    Aaron Copland

    American Composer
  • Elliot Carter

    Elliot Carter
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    Elliot Carter

    American Modernist Composer. Used polyrhythm, metric modulation etc.
  • Pierre Schaeffer

    Pierre Schaeffer
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    Neo-Classicism

    This genre was a bit of a return to styles from the 18th century, with some modern techniques implemented.Began with the revival of Bach.
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    Primitivism

    Western visual art movement, folklike. See Rite of Spring
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    Pierre Schaeffer

    French Composer. He first developed the Musique Concrete technique using a tape recorder (see Musique Concrete)
  • John Cage

    John Cage
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    John Cage

    American Composer that wrote 4:33. Wrote chance music, Henry Cowell's student.
  • Billie Holiday

    Billie Holiday
  • Billy Strayhorn

    Billy Strayhorn
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    Dadaism

    Anti-art thinking. Genre against war. People from all arts came together for this time.
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    Billie Holiday

    American Singer
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    Billy Strayhorn

    American Jazz Composer. Composed A train "collaborated" with Ellington.
  • Leonard Bernstein

    Leonard Bernstein
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    Leonard Bernstein

    American Composer, composed West Side Story Music.
  • Scat Singing

    Scat Singing is improvised Jazz in which the voce imitates an instrument. Was popular around this time. Louis Armstrong was a great early jazz performer.
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    Non-Tonal

    Style of music that focuses on elements other than pitch. Percussion ensembles benefited from this. Edgard Varese is to thank for his vision in modern techniques ( where strings were minimal.)
  • Swing Era

    Jazz lead style began in New Orleans
  • Porgy and Bess

    Gershwin wrote this to be an American Fold Opera. First opera with all black cast.
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    World War II

  • Musique Concrete

    This genre had deep effects on modern music. Pierre Schaeffer developed this technique by using a tape recorder. The things recorded were sounds of nature which were then manipulated by tape slicing in order to overlap these sounds.
  • BeBop

    New Cool Jazz Form
  • Aleatoric

    Also known as Chance Music, a concept where the composer left musical elements in a performance up to chance and were never the same. Charles Ives and Henry Cowell laid foundations for this.
  • Indeterminate

    Also based off of elements of chance. First type of this genre came from aleatoric music. John Cage lectured on this topic in 1958 and 1961. Another type of this genre was composed by Iannis Xcnakis and Karlheinz Stockhausen. They focused on an indeterminate process of composition.
  • Electronische Musik

    Also known as electronic music. This genre was developed in Germany in the 1950s after Stockhausen worked with Schaeffer in their studio in 1952. Cologne was the leading city for this genre with its radio studio NWDR.
  • Civil Rights Movement

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    Textural

    This genre functioned alongside non-tonal music with its broad sonic chunks called sound masses. Textural music uses sound blocks which were manipulated through musical means. Ligeti and Penderecki exploited Ttextural music with ther works Atmospheres and Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima.
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    Maximized Expressionism

    Including integral serialism
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    Vietnam War

  • Tape Recorder Invention

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    Minimalism

    Style of repetitive music. Based on the notion that small units of musical material, could only be repeated with slight variation over time. Opposite to the maximalist extreme.
  • Neo-Romanticism

    Label given to a sort of music that appeals to people who are hoping to understand and embrace the music.
  • Neo-Tonality

    New mother tongue of late 20th and early 21st century. In Wagner's music. Tristan Chord is an example. Use of chromaticism. Consonance and dissonance are becoming less distinct. Mostly the 7ths of these 2 and 2nds are now part of new colorful tonal system.
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    Postmodernism

    Aesthetic attitude that focused on uniting past elements of music into a new style. This style has crossed into popular music of our day.
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    Totalism

    Term used recently to describe music that developed among composers working in NYC as a response to minimalism. Totalist music pursues the still unbroken paths of maximalism. The genre features complexity as its primary aim, which is a trait placed above other aesthetic goals.
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    New Complexity

    Ties closely with concepts central to totalism. This genre is usually abstract, dissonant, microtonal, and relies on extreme contrast as a desirable aesthetic trait.
  • World Wide Web

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    Globalization

    Has been a direct result of tech which allowed immediate exchange of ideas.
  • Maximalized Aesthetics for Our Maxed-Out Maximalism

    Our current American society values the extreme.