Physics Timeline 2

  • Period: to

    Biology in the 1900's

  • Landsteiner announces four "blood types"

    Thisdentification of the four blood groups: A, B, O, and AB consequently, laid the groundwork for the first successful blood transfusions in 1907 and is still useful in today's medical fields.
  • Walter Sutton suggests that genes are physical units on chromosomes

    German scientist Theodor Boveri and the American Walter Sutton, working independently, suggested that chromosomes could be shown to bear the material of heredity. Mendelian concepts, as it turned out, had an excellent fit with facts about chromosomes.
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan: Gene theory of inherritance

    Morgan confirmed Mendelian laws of inheritance and the hypothesis that genes are located on chromosomes. He thereby inaugurated classical experimental genetics.
  • Banting and Best isolate insulin

    Insulin is a hormone, produced by the pancreas, which is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle. The isolation of this caused major advancements in medical and bioological fields.
  • Chromosome inversions predicted by C.B. Bridges

    An inversion is a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end. An inversion occurs when a single chromosome undergoes breakage and rearrangement within itself. Inversions are of two types: paracentric and pericentric.
  • R.A. Fisher and S. Wright provide mathematical foundations for population genetics

    Population genetics is the study of allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of the four main evolutionary processes: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and gene flow. This is important because it helps us better understand different races and populations and how they are related through genetics
  • 1932 Kroll and Ruska: first electron microscope

    An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses a beam of electrons to illuminate the specimen and produce a magnified image. This helps us better understand microscopic organisms in biology.
  • 1935 Fritz Zernicke: first phase contrast microscope

    Phase contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy illumination technique that converts phase shifts in light passing through a transparent specimen to brightness changes in the image. The phase shifts themselves are invisible to the human eye, but become visible when they are shown as brightness changes. This helps us see bacteria and other microscopic organisms that were for a long time unknown to humans.
  • Avery, McLeod, and McCarty show that DNA controls heredity effects

    Heredity is the passing of traits to offspring from its parent or ancestors. This provided us with a better understanding of how traits are passed and let us better understand the importance of DNA.
  • American Institute of Biological Science formed

    This institution would lead to further discoveries and advancements in the field of biology.
  • 1953 Watson and Crick provide a model for DNA

    This helped the world realize how DNA looks and is constructed providing people a better understanding of DNA and how we are made.
  • Norenberg and Ochoa "crack" DNA and messenger RNA codes

    With DNA and RNA codes cracked it provided people with the understanding of how genes and traits are made and passed down through generations.
  • 1967 Dr. Christian Bernard: first heart transplant

    With the first heart transplant completed doctors could then begin to transplant even more organs and save many lives. This was able to be accomplished because of our understandings of cells and DNA.
  • Weiss & Green fuse mouse and human cells

    This provided a better understanding of cells, and gave people a further look into the fusion of cells. This possibly could lead to the creation of body parts through cell fusions.
  • First totally successful fertilization of human ovum outside human body

    This would lead to a better understanding about humans, and how they are born. It also allows us to conduct further research on unborn fetuses and stem cells.