Origins of the Cold War

By minghui
  • Period: to

    Tehran Conference

    Churchill : The USSR could absorb part of Eastern Poland while the latter would gain part of eastern Germany
  • Percentages Agreement

    Britain to have 90% influence in Greece, USSR to have 90% influence in Romania and 75% in Bulgaria
  • Dollar Diplomacy

    Dollar Diplomacy
    *Unsure of exact date USSR asked for a $6 billion loan from the US. The US immediately imposed codtions of the opening of Eastern European markets to US manufactured products
  • Period: to

    Yalta Conference

    US,Britain rejected the revision of Polish border.
    Inclusion of London Poles inside the Lublin Committee, and democratic elections promised to be held in Poland.
    Stalin signed the Declaration of Liberated Europe which pledged free elecetions and democratic institutions
  • Roosevelt's doubt

    *Unsure of exact date Roosevelt doubted for the first time the possibility of postwar cooperation with the Soviets
  • Dollar Diplomacy

    Dollar Diplomacy
    *Unsure of exact date Termination of Lend-Lease by US in May 1945
    -Soviets' need for capital made more desperate
  • Trieste

    *Unsure of exact date Marshall Tito's forces entered the post city in May 1945. THe ownership of Trieste had historically been disputed between Yugoslavia and Italy.
  • Atomic diplomacy

    Atomic diplomacy
    *Unsure of exact date US practised atomic diplomacy at Potsdam in July 1945, where Truman offered Stalin information about the bomb in return for the reorganisation of Soviet controlled governments in Bulgaria and Romania
  • Dollar Diplomacy

    Dollar Diplomacy
    *Unsure of exact date A further request for $1 billion loan by the USSR was 'lost' by the US State Department, further increasing the Soviet conviction that the US was unwilling to collaborate in postwar economic reconstruction.
  • Korea

    *Unsure of exact date Soviet troops moved across the Russian border into North Korea to trake over from the Japanese
  • Manchuria

    *Unsure of exact date 50,000 US Marines were sent to North China to secure key communications centres, road rail routes and help to transport KMT armies to the area
  • Failure of USSR to join WB AND IMF

    *Unsure of exact date World Bank and International Monetary Fund
  • Dollar Diplomacy

    Dollar Diplomacy
    *Unsure of exact date and month US imposed the condtions of dropping trade barriers in Eastern Europe and compensation for US assets seized in Romania and Bulgaria when the Soviets requested for a loan in early 1946
  • "Babying the Soviets"

    *Unsure of exact date In view of the Sovietisation of Romania and Bulgaria, Truman has already concluded that they should not compromise any longer and that he was tired of 'babying the Soviets'.
  • Kennan's Long Telegramme

    *Unsure of exact date George Kennan's analysis of Soviet foreign policy emphasized the role of communist ideology. He saw the Soviet leadership as suspicious and aggressive; insecurities stemmed from their view of the outside world as virulently anti-communist. Given this outlook, there could be no compromise with the USSR. This had an impact on hte US Policy makers. It was the decisive factor in the Truman's administration's change of course to a policy of firmness towards the USSR
  • Iran

    *Unsure of exact date Soviets were asked to evacuate Iran by March 1946 as there was no need for the Soviets to be there anymore.
  • Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech

    Some of the themes discussed in the LOng Telegramme and privately discussed by officials were now aired in public for the first time.
    Just as the Long Telegramme shaped the attitude of the political elite towards the USSR, the Iron Curtain Speech hardened the attitude of the American public.
    Stalin called Churchill a warmonger and accused him of trying to start World War III. There was however, no concrete follow up by him.
  • Iran

    *Unsure of exact date US took issue to UN when USSR didnt evacuate and USSR was asked to leave again by May 1946
  • Negotiations over loans ended

    *Unsure of exact date
  • The Clifford- Elsey Report

    *Unsure of exact date Truman commissioned two of his advisors to review US-Soviet relations. The report highlighted examples of Soviet aggression in Iran and Manchuria as well as identified ideology and not security concerns as the driver of Soviet foreign policy.
    This reflects the US perception of the USSR which had crystallised by this point in time. It acted as a justification for the US perspective of the Soviets.
  • Change in US Policy in Germany

    *Unsure of exact date US now decided to aid Germany in its economic recovery; it saw this as being more important than satisfying Soviet claims. As such, reparations to the USSR halted and in July 1946, Britain and the US agreed to merge their zones of occupation into the Bizone
  • Baruch Plan

    *Unsure of exact date The plan concerned the frequent inspection of atomic energy installations in UN member states part of the effort to regulate atomic energy. While the plan demanded for the provision of Soviet information about their level of research and development,it allowed for the retaining of American atomic capability. Even when the plan was adopted, the Soviets used their veto power to prevent anymore discussion about it.
  • Marshall Plan

    *Unsure of exact date
    George Marshall launched the idea of a Marshall Plan to restore economic stability and hence political stability.
    It was primarily to contain communism and secondarily to create a captive European marker for American goods.
  • Seizing of power in Czechoslovakia

    *Unsure of exact date Before Congress voted on the legislation for the Marshall Plan, the communists sezied power in Czechoslovakia.
  • Congress Approval

    *Unsure of exact date This proved to have a catalytic effect on the implementation of the Marshall Plan. The Senate approved the Plan in March 1948 by a vote of 69-17 while the House of Representatives approved it by 318-75.
  • Brussels Pact

    *Unsure of exact date Formed by 5 European countries - Britain, France, Belgium,Netherlands and Luxembourg. This pact bound all the participants to come to the help of any one of them if attacked in Europe. However, Britain and Frnace realised that the defence of Western Europe was only viable with American participation. The initiation for NATO thus came from Western Europe
  • Establishment of the Deutsche Mark

    *Unsure of exact date and month In the early months of 1948, the US and Britain (with tacit French support) sought agreement on a plan to introduce a new German currency that would circulate freely in all four zones. When this met with Soviet resistance, the three Western powers proceeded in June 1948 to establish the Deutsche Mark.
  • Berlin Blockade

    *Unsure of exact date Russia blocked the roads and rail routes to Berlin.
  • Formation Of NATO

    North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
  • Formation of Warsaw Pact

    The Warsaw Pact was a mutual defense treaty between eight communist States of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War.