• Period: 4000 BCE to 3000 BCE


  • 3500 BCE

    Invention of the wheel

    It dates back to 3,500 B.C. in Mesopotamia. It facilitated transportation and mobility in a global and daily way. But it also produced important developments in the field of industrialization. It is one of the fundamental inventions in the history of mankind and also fundamental for the later Industrial Revolution as it is essential for machinery.
  • Period: 3000 BCE to 476

    𝕋𝕙𝕖 𝔸𝕟𝕔𝕚𝕖𝕟𝕥 𝔸𝕘𝕖

    The Ancient Age is the historical period that witnessed the emergence and development of the first human civilizations (known as ancient civilizations), especially after the invention of writing, an event considered as the end of prehistory and the beginning of history as such.
  • Period: 476 to 1492

    𝕋𝕙𝕖 𝕄𝕚𝕕𝕕𝕝𝕖 𝔸𝕘𝕖𝕤

    The Middle Ages is the historical period from the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476) to the Discovery of America (1492). This long historical period, also known as feudalism, was a social, political, and economic organization based on land and vassalage.
  • 750


    Gregorian chant is a form of sacred song in Latin or Greek, employed within the Roman Catholic Church for centuries. From the start, Gregorian chant has had two key distinguishing features: it´s not accompanied by instruments and it´s monophonic.
    Today, Catholic and Protestant ceremonies use Gregorian chant in the call and response liturgy of sermons.
    EXAMPLE: Spiritus Domini
    Here I attach a cool video about what the Gregorian Chant is:
  • 901

    Invention of the gunpowder

    It was created in the 10th century and had its first war use, which changed the way wars were fought. Later, it was applied to jobs such as mining, for which it was essential.
  • 992

    Guido d’Arezzo (birth)

    Guido d’Arezzo (birth)
    Guido d'Arezzo was a Benedictine monk who has gone down in music history as one of the most important reformers of the musical notation system. To Guido we owe the formula that allows us to memorize the precise intonation of the notes of the major hexachord, whose nomenclature (ut or do, re, mi, fa, sol, la) he extracted from the initial syllables of each hemistychium of St. John's hymn Ut queant laxis.
  • 1135

    Bernart de Ventadorn

    Bernart de Ventadorn
    Bernart de Ventadorn, also known as Bernart de Ventadour, was a popular Provençal troubadour, composer, and poet. According to the troubadour Uc de Santo Circ, Bernart was possibly the son of a baker at the Château de Ventadour (Ventadorn) in Corrèze, in the French Limousin.
  • 1150

    Leonin (birth)

    Leonin (birth)
    Léonin or Magister Leoninus is, along with Perotín, the first known composer of polyphonic organum, associated with the School of Notre Dame.He is credited with creating the Magnus liber organi, the great organ book, a mid-twelfth-century style of composition used at Notre Dame around 1200. It is not preserved in its original form, but several copies have survived in manuscripts found in Florence, Wolfenbüttel and Madrid.
  • 1155

    Pérotin (birth)

    Pérotin (birth)
    Pérotin was a medieval French composer, who was born in Paris between 1155 and 1160 and died around 1230. He is considered the most important composer of the School of Notre Dame de Paris, where the polyphonic style began to take shape.
    Pérotin was one of the first important composers of Ars Antiqua. He was one of the first to develop the technique of organum, an early form of polyphony, and created some of the most famous pieces of the time.
  • Period: 1170 to 1310

    Ars Antiqua

    Ars antiqua is a term which refers to the music of Europe of the late Middle Ages between approximately 1170 and 1310. Usually the term is restricted to sacred music, excluding the secular song of the troubadors and trouvères; however sometimes the term is used more loosely to mean all European music of the thirteenth century and slightly before. The term ars antiqua is used in opposition to ars nova, which refers to the period of musical activity after about 1310.
  • Dec 17, 1179

    Hildegard von Bingen (birth)

    Hildegard von Bingen (birth)
    Hildegard von Bingen was a multifaceted abbess, physicist, philosopher, naturalist, composer, poetess and linguist of the Middle Ages.He founded the monasteries of Rupertsberg in 1150 and Eibingen in 1165. His output includes theological, botanical, and medicinal works, as well as letters, hymns, and antiphons for the liturgy. He wrote poems and supervised miniature illuminations in Rupertsberg's manuscript of his first work, Scivias.
  • Nov 23, 1221

    Alfonso X the Wise

    Alfonso X the Wise
    Alfonso X, known as the Wise, was the son of the Castilian-Leonese monarch Ferdinand III and his wife the German princess Beatrix of Swabia. Alfonso X was King of Castile and León between 1252, the date of his father's death, and 1284, the year of his death.
    He carried out an active economic policy, reformed the currency and the treasury, and recognized the Honorable Council of the Mesta. It stands out for the literary, scientific, historical and legal work carried out by its royal desk.
  • 1300

    Guillaume de Machaut

    Guillaume de Machaut
    Guillaume de Machaut was a French medieval clergyman, poet, and composer. His projection was enormous and he is historically the greatest representative of the movement known as Ars nova, being considered the most famous composer of the fourteenth century. He contributed to the development of the motet and secular song.
  • Period: 1310 to 1377

    Ars Nova

    The words "Ars Nova" come from Latin and mean "new art". Ars Nova was a musical style that flourished mainly in France and Italy during the late Middle Ages in the 14th century (roughly 1310–1377). This type of music developed mainly in prestigious environments (universities, manorial courts, and the church...).
    Ars Nova music focuses and shines on the aspect of polyphony and is influenced by the tradition of the troubadours.
    We can difference two types: French Ars Nova and Italian Ars Nova.
  • 1325

    Francesco Landini

    Francesco Landini
    Francesco Landini or Landino was an Italian composer, organist, singer, poet, instrument builder and astrologer.
    He was one of the most famous and revered composers of the second half of the fourteenth century.
    Most of the biographical information about his life comes from a book published in 1385 by a famous Florentine chronicler, known as Filippo Villani.
  • 1400

    The printing press

    It was invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1400 and a hundred years later it was in widespread use throughout Europe. With it, culture and information became popular and reached the entire world. Gutenberg would thus become one of the most famous and influential inventors in human history. And the printing press has had an indisputable impact on the dissemination of information and, therefore, the democratization of education.
  • Feb 2, 1468

    Johannes Gutenberg

    Johannes Gutenberg
    Johannes Gutenberg was a German goldsmith, inventor of the modern printing press with movable type, around 1450. His best-known work is the 42-line Bible, which is considered the first book printed with movable type, and which was key to the propagation of Martin Luther's ideas and with it the Protestant Reformation.
  • Jul 12, 1468

    Juan del Encina

    Juan del Encina
    Juan del Encina was a composer, poet, priest, and playwrigh. He was credited as the joint-father of Spanish drama, alongside Gil Vicente. His birth name was Juan de Fermoselle. He spelled his name Enzina, but this is not a significant difference; it is two spellings of the same sound, in a time when "correct spelling" as we know it barely existed.
    He,s considered one of the greatest exponents of religious and secular polyphony in Spain at the end of the 15th century.
  • Nov 10, 1483

    Martín Luther

    Martín Luther
    Martin Luther was a German priest, theologian, author, hymnwriter, professor, and Augustinian friar.[3] He was the seminal figure of the Protestant Reformation, and his theological beliefs form the basis of Lutheranism.
    Luther rightly opposed the religious praxis and theology of his day because they had been a deficient expression of what was Catholic; Luther's basic reforming finding is substantially Catholic.
  • Period: 1492 to

    𝕄𝕠𝕕𝕖𝕣𝕟 𝕒𝕘𝕖

    The Modern Age was a time of gigantic changes in the political, social, economic, cultural and scientific fields, which laid the foundations of the world as we know it today. It marked a departure from the religious obscurantism that prevailed in the West during the Middle Ages.
  • 1500

    Cristóbal de Morales

    Cristóbal de Morales
    Cristóbal de Morales was a Spanish composer of the Renaissance. He is generally considered to be the most influential Spanish composer before Tomás Luis de Victoria.[
    Cristóbal de Morales was born in Seville and, after an exceptional early education there, which included a rigorous training in the classics as well as musical study with some of the foremost composers, he held posts at Ávila and Plasencia.
  • 1510

    Antonio de Cabezón

    Antonio de Cabezón
    Antonio de Cabezón was born in Madrid and was a Spanish organist, harpist and composer of the Renaissance. The works of music for keyboard, harp and vihuela by Antonio de Cabezón, published in Madrid in 1578, by his son Hernando de Cabezón.
  • Feb 3, 1525

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina was an Italian composer of late Renaissance music. The central representative of the Roman School, with Orlande de Lassus and Tomás Luis de Victoria, Palestrina is considered the leading composer of late 16th-century Europe.
  • 1531

    Andrea Gabrieli

    Andrea Gabrieli
    Andrea Gabrieli was an Italian composer and organist of the late Renaissance. Uncle of perhaps the most famous composer Giovanni Gabrieli, he was the first internationally renowned member of the Venetian School of Composers. He had a great influence on the spread of the Venetian style in both Italy and Germany. Gabrieli was a creative and versatile composer who created a great deal of music, mostly for the immense, resonant space of St. Mark's.
  • 1532

    Orlando di Lasso

    Orlando di Lasso
    Orlando di Lasso was a Flemish composer whose music stands at the apex of the Franco-Netherlandish style that dominated European music of the Renaissance.
    Lasso's name appears in many spellings, often changed depending on the place in which his music was being performed or published. In addition to Orlando di Lasso, variations include Orlande de Lassus, Roland de Lassus, Orlandus Lassus, Orlande de Lattre and Roland de Lattre.
  • 1543

    The Heliocentric Model

    The Heliocentric Model
    The theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun is called the heliocentric theory, helio meaning 'sun' and centric meaning 'in the center. ' This theory was developed in parts by different astronomers over many years, namely Aristarchus, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler.
  • 1544

    Maddalena Casulana

    Maddalena Casulana
    Maddalena Casulana was a late Renaissance Italian singer, lutenist, and composer. In the long history of western music, she is the inaugural female composer to have an entire book of her compositions printed and published.
    Other than what can be deduced from the dedications and notes on her collections of madrigals, very little is known about her life. Based on her name, it is most likely that she was born in Casole d'Elsa. Her early life and training in music were acquired in Florence.
  • 1548

    Tomás Luis de Victoria

    Tomás Luis de Victoria
    Tomás Luis de Victoria was a spanish composer who ranks with Palestrina and Orlando di Lasso among the greatest composers of the 16th century.
    In 1585 Victoria's most ambitious and masterful creation was published: the "Officium hebdomadae Santae", a collection that includes 18 Responsories, 9 Lamentations, two choruses of passions, a Miserere, Expletives, Motets, Hymns and Psalms for the celebration of the whole Holy Week.
  • 1555

    Giovanni Gabrieli

    Giovanni Gabrieli
    Giovanni Gabrieli was an Italian composer and organist. He was one of the most influential musicians of his time, and represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to Baroque idioms.
    Gabrieli was born in Venice. He was one of five children, and his father came from the region of Carnia.
    Though Gabrieli composed in many of the forms current at the time, he preferred sacred vocal and instrumental music.
  • Feb 15, 1564

    Galileo Galilei birth

    Galileo Galilei birth
    Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) has always played a key role in any history of science, as well as many histories of philosophy. He is a central figure of the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century. His work in physics (or “natural philosophy”), astronomy, and the methodology of science still evoke debate after more than 400 years
  • Mar 30, 1566

    Carlo Gesualdo da Venosa

    Carlo Gesualdo da Venosa
    Carlo Gesualdo da Venosa was Prince of Venosa and Count of Conza. As a composer he is known for writing madrigals and pieces of sacred music that use a chromatic language not heard again until the late 19th century. He is also known for killing his first wife and her aristocratic lover upon finding them in flagrante delicto.
  • May 15, 1567

    Claudio Monteverdi

    Claudio Monteverdi
    Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi was an Italian composer, choirmaster and string player. A composer of both secular and sacred music, and a pioneer in the development of opera, he is considered a crucial transitional figure between the Renaissance and Baroque periods of music history.
    Claudio Monteverdi is considered the father of modern music, the father of opera.
    In his lifetime Monteverdi enjoyed considerable status among musicians and the public.
  • Giacomo Carissimi

    Giacomo Carissimi
    Giacomo Carissimi was an Italian composer and music teacher. He is one of the most celebrated masters of the early Baroque or, more accurately, the Roman School of music.
    He was highly influential in musical developments in northern European countries through his pupils, like Kerll in Germany and Charpentier in France, and the wide dissemination of his music.
    Carissimi's exact birthdate was probably in 1604 or 1605 in Marino near Rome, Italy. Of his early life almost nothing is known.
  • Barbara Strozzi

    Barbara Strozzi
    Among the most fascinating characters from the Italian Baroque is without a doubt the Venetian Barbara Strozzi.
    Renowned composer who was acknowledged in her own era in a field dominated by men, music, owing to her ability to infuse her work with sensitivity and emotional expressiveness, she was able to shine through driven by her own desire.
    Her work spread beyond the limits of Italy, being renowned throughout the rest of Europe and being included in the major musical anthologies of the period.
  • Henry Purcel

    Henry Purcel
    Henry Purcell was an English composer of the Baroque period. Considered one of the greatest English composers of all time, he incorporated French and Italian stylistic elements into his music, generating his own English style of Baroque music.
    The most famous of his stage works is "Dido and Aeneas" (1689), as it marks the beginnings of dramatic music. "Dido and Aeneas" is a milestone in the history of English dramatic music, it was written according to a libretto by Nathum Tate, a professor.
  • Antonio Lucio Vivaldi

    Antonio Lucio Vivaldi
    Antonio Vivaldi is one of the most famous composers today. We've all heard a lot of his compositions at school. He was an Italian composer, virtuoso violinist and impresario of Baroque music.
    Vivaldi wrote more than 500 other concertos. About 350 of these are for solo instrument and strings, of which 230 are for violin, the others being for bassoon, cello, oboe, flute, viola d'amore, recorder, lute, or mandolin.
  • Georg Friedrich Händel

    Georg Friedrich Händel
    He was a well-known German-British Baroque composer who wrote organ concertos, operas, oratorios, anthems, and concerti grossi.
    Handel's compositions include 42 operas, 25 oratorios, more than 120 cantatas, trios and duets, numerous arias, odes and serenatas, solo and trio sonatas, 18 concerti grossi, and 12 organ concertos. His most famous work, the oratorio Messiah with its "Hallelujah" chorus, is among the most popular works in choral music.
  • Johann Sebastian Bach

    Johann Sebastian Bach
    Johann Sebastian Bach was a German organist and composer whose work is today considered one of the finest of Baroque music at its peak (around 1600-1750).
    During his lifetime he was better known as an organist than a composer, and his rich legacy encompasses sacred and secular works, most notably cantatas, organ pieces, and concertos that influenced many later composers. Here is a good video about Bach:
  • Christoph Willibald Gluck

    Christoph Willibald Gluck
    Gluck nació el 2 de julio de 1714 en Alemania y murió el 15 de noviembre de 1787 en Austria. Es considerado uno de los compositores de ópera más importantes del Clasicismo de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII.
    Reformó completamente la ópera eliminando las arias da capo, suprimiendo los extensos recitativos secos con clavecín y reemplazándolos por recitativos acompañados por la orquesta.
  • Joseph Haydn

    Joseph Haydn
    Franz Joseph Haydn ​, conocido como Joseph Haydn, fue un compositor austriaco. Es uno de los máximos representantes del periodo Clásico, además de ser conocido como el «padre de la sinfonía» y el «padre del cuarteto de cuerda» gracias a sus importantes contribuciones a ambos géneros.
    Fue un compositor tan prolífico que, cuando murió, su cabeza fue cortada para que los científicos pudieran estudiar su cerebro.
    Existen 106 sinfonías escritas por el compositor clásico Joseph Haydn
  • Maria Anna Mozart (Nannerl Mozart)

    Maria Anna Mozart (Nannerl Mozart)
    Nannerl Mozart fue hermana mayor del afamado compositor Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Ella también tuvo prodigiosas dotes musicales: cantaba, tocaba el violín y el piano y componía.
    Aunque tradicionalmente se señala que ninguna de las obras de Nannerl sobrevivieron, el investigador australiano Martin Jarvis señala que ha encontrado la «escritura musical» de Maria Anna, lo que confirmaría que compuso obras que su hermano menor utilizó para aprender a tocar el piano.
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    Considerado por muchos como el mayor genio musical de todos los tiempos, Mozart compuso una obra original y poderosa que abarcó géneros tan distintos como la ópera bufa, la música sacra y las sinfonías.

    En su niñez más temprana en Salzburgo, Mozart mostró una capacidad prodigiosa en el dominio de instrumentos de teclado y del violín
    El aspecto físico de Mozart fue descrito como «un pequeño hombre notable, muy delgado y pálido, con una prominente cabellera de cabellos claros».
  • Georg Philipp Telemann

    Georg Philipp Telemann
    Georg Philipp Telemann was a German Baroque composer, although his work also had characteristics of early classicism. He is considered the most prolific composer in the history of music. Self-taught in music, he studied law at the University of Leipzig.
    Telemann cultivated almost all musical genres, from opera to oratorios to concertos, and introduced important innovations that broke habits in the music of the time.
  • Ludwig van Beethoven

    Ludwig van Beethoven
    Compositor alemán. Nacido en el seno de una familia de origen flamenco, su padre, ante las evidentes cualidades para la música que demostraba el pequeño Ludwig, intentó hacer de él un segundo Mozart, aunque con escaso éxito.
    Siendo el último gran representante del clasicismo vienés, consiguió hacer trascender la música del Romanticismo, influyendo en diversidad de obras musicales del siglo XIX y su arte se expresó en numerosos géneros.
  • Period: to

    ℂ𝕠𝕟𝕥𝕖𝕞𝕡𝕠𝕣𝕒𝕣𝕪 𝕒𝕘𝕖

    The Contemporary Age is the historical period between the French Revolution (1789) and the present day. It is a time characterized by revolutions and by great artistic, demographic, social, political, technological and economic transformations.
  • Invention of the antibiotics.

    It is one of the most relevant scientific inventions in history. They were discovered in 1877 by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, a chemical compound with antibiotic properties. Thanks to its existence, countless lives have been saved. In fact, with its appearance, diseases that until then were considered fatal ceased to be so. Nowadays, we have to monitor the disposal of medicines, because they can have harmful effects on the environment.
  • The light bulb.

    Thomas Edison and Josephn Swan, two famous inventors from the United States and England respectively, patented the first light bulb in 1879 and 1880. Its commercialization marked a before and after for society. With the appearance of the electric light bulb, the hours of human activity have been quantitatively extended.
  • Albert Einsten born

    Albert Einsten born
    One of the finest and most significant scientists of all time, Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who lived from 14 March 1879 to 18 April 1955. A key player in the dramatic reconstruction of contemporary physics' knowledge of nature in the early decades of the twentieth century, Einstein is best known for having developed the theory of relativity but also made significant contributions to quantum mechanics.
  • The Theory of Relativity

    Albert Einstein, a German scientist you may have heard of, proposed his theory of relativity in 1915. Summed up, the theory states that mass can warp both space and time, which allows large masses like starsto bend light. It’s trippy .
  • Internet

    It was born in the sixties of the last century in the United States, when an exclusively military network was created to, in the event of a Soviet attack, have access to information from anywhere in the country. Already in the eighties, Tim Berners-Lee and scientists from MIT created HTTP and, later, the World Wide Web. This ends up becoming the essential infrastructure of the digital age.
  • Ⓜⓨ ⓑⓘⓡⓣⓗⓓⓐⓨ !


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