Movements for Change

  • Formation of Germany

    Formation of Germany
    Germany was made up of many states governed under the Prussian Empire. Prussian chancellor, Otto Von Bismark, unified the Prussian states into one state - Germany. Germany was a very powerful sate for a short amount of time.
  • Germany Pre WWI

    Germany Pre WWI
    Germany was a thriving empire. Industry into iron, steel and coal. Large numbers of unhappy factory workers formed political groups.
    Revolutionary Socialists: Wanting to overthrow the ruling class - the Kaiser.
    Parliamentary Socialists: Wanting the Kaiser to give more power to the Reichstag.
  • WWI Starts

  • Worsening Conditions

    Food shortages in Germany due to the blockade.
    Hundreds of thousands of people dies direct and indirect because of the food shortages.
    Disease spread through Germany - people had low immunity due to the lack of food, clothing and harsh working and living conditions.
    Approx 175 000 people dies of flu during the final months of the war.
    1918 food supplies ran so low adults were living on less than 1000 cals per day.
  • Period: to

    Political Murders

    Over 370 political murders, most from the extreme right.
  • Spring Offensive

    21 Mar 1918 – 18 July 1918
    General Ludendorff and Marshall Von Hindenburg organised the Spring Offensive as a desperate last attempt to win the war through the western front.
    29th September 1918 Ludendorff and Hindenburg told Kaiser Wilhelm the war was lost and Germany would have to negotiate an armistice.
  • The Big Three

    The Big Three
    David Lloyd George British PM
    -Middle Man. Voice of Reason
    -Wanted justice not revenge
    -Hated the treaty
    -Liked smaller German army and seizing of German colonies
    -Believed a second war would happen in 25 years Georges Clemenceau French PM
    -Was out for blood
    -Wanted to cripple Germany so they could never invade France again
    -Liked the repercussions. Wanted the treaty to he harsher Woodrow Wilson US President
    -Wanted peace
    -Fourteen Points
    -Created League of Nations
    -Refused to sign the treaty
  • Attempting Democracy

    Allies ordered Germany to become a more democratic nation before they would begin to negotiate a peace treaty.
    2 October 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm allowed main parties in the Reichstag to form government and reduced the power of the Kaiser.
    German people blamed the Kaiser for the worsening conditions and many wanted him to give up his throne.
  • Formation of the Weimar Republic

    The President
    -Elected by the German people every 7 yrs
    -Head of state
    -Commander of the army
    -Appoints/dismisses Chancellor
    -Article 48 Emergency powers The Chancellor & The Cabinet
    -Responsible for the day to day govt of the country
    -Initiates laws, which must be approved by the Reichstag The Reichstag
    -Members for various parties
    -Elected by the people using proportional voting
    -Laws are passed or not in the Reichstag The Reichsrat
    -Upper parliament house
    -Represents the 18 German States
  • Kaiser Wilhelm Flees Germany

    Kaiser Wilhelm Flees Germany
    September 29 1918 General Ludendorff & Marshal Von Hindenburg told Kaiser Wilhelm the war was lost and Germany would have to neotocite an armistice. Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated the German throne in November 1918 and fled to the Netherlands.
    November 9th Chancellor Max von Baden announced the abdication the the Kaiser.
    Philipp Schneidermann announced the formation of a new German republic. Did this without support from Ebert of the SPD.
    Schneidermann resigned as chancellor in response to the treaty.
  • November Criminals

    November Criminals
    The November criminals were the group of German leaders who signed the armistice and created the Weimar Government. Were seen as criminals and were seen to stab the German army in the back.
  • WWI Ends

    Germany signed an armistice, ending all fighting in any country. Germany began to negotiate a peace treaty with Britain, France and U.S. "The Big Three" who decided on the treaty's terms.
  • Attack from the Left - Spartacists Uprising

    Attack from the Left - Spartacists Uprising
    The Spartacists Uprising was critical in the German Revolution.
    Was an attempt for the communists to seize control of government and create a communist society.
    Ebert called on the Freikorps to end the uprising. (Ebert Groner Pact)
    Many protestors returned home giving up. Others were exicuted by the Freikorp. Inclusing Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht.
  • Freikorps Attack the Spartacists

    Ebert withdrew his govt and allowed the Freikorps to end the uprising. no mercy was shown the the Spartacists. Majority of the Spartacists were young civilians. Over 100 workers were killed, even those who surrendered, during what became the "Bloody Week". 3 days of fighting Freikorps captured Luxemburg and Liebknecht and brutally murdered them.
  • Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are Executed

    Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are Executed
    The execution of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht caused the communist party to fall apart and divide into multiple communist parties. Because of this division communists were unable to attain many seats in the Reichstag.
  • What the Executions Meant for Ebert and the Weimar

    The executions of the communist party leaders invited criticism from Ebert & his ministers. Ebert promised that those responsible would be punished. This was a ploy by Ebert to ensure the German people still had faith in the Weimar Govt. Two Freikorps members were tried and given light sentences.
  • First Election Held in Germany

    A democratic system took over Germany suddenly and unexpectedly.
    The most immediate challenge faced by the new govt was to hold free democratic elections for new parliament.
    19th Jan 1919 all Germans over 20 yrs old were able to vote.
    Of the 423 seats in the Reichstag, Ebert's SDP won 165. Centre Party won 91. And German Democratic Party won 75.
  • Friedrich Ebert Becomes the First President of the Weimar Republic

    Friedrich Ebert Becomes the First President of the Weimar Republic
  • Signing the Treaty of Versailles

    Signing the Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles was signed by all allied forces (except for U.S.A.) Germany was forced into agreeing to the terms. *Guilt Armed Forces
    100 000 men in the army
    No submarines/airplanes
    6 Battleships
    Rhine-land be demilitarized Reparations
    Pay for all damages
    £6.6.B
    394B AUD Germany Lost Territory
    West Germany/Polish corridor to Poland
    All colonies made mandates of the League of Nations *League of Nations Extra Points
    Germany Lost:
    10% land
    All colonies
    16% coalfields
    All air force
  • The Ebert Groener Pact

    The Ebert Groener Pact
    After being elected president, Ebert recognised the weakness of his government and sought out the support of the army.
    Turned to the Reichwehr - Wilhelm Groener.
    Groener reluctantly agreed.
    The Ebert Groener Pact would become a critical factor in the governments' survival.
  • League of Nations is Formed

    League of Nations is Formed
    The League of Nations was set up as an international forum to settle disputes by discussion, not just starting war. Germany was refused entry to the League of Nations and consequently U.S.A refused to join. The League of Nations was not effective.
  • Attack from the Right - Kapp Putsch

    Attack from the Right - Kapp Putsch
    Because of Spartacist uprising Ebert appointed Gustav Noske (socialist) as defence minister.
    Treaty of Versailles, signed by Ebert, meant that the Freikorp had to disband.
    Ebert's govt and the Reichswehr (military) deteriorated.
    The trigger for the Putsch came in March 1920 when the govt ordered the disbanding of two of the largest Freikorp groups.
    Freikorps, led by Wolfgang Kapp and Luttwitz, took over Berlin.
    Army refused to help the Freikorps or Ebert.
    Ebert and Chancellor Bauer fled Berlin.
  • Civilian Strike Against Kapp Putsch

    Civilian Strike Against Kapp Putsch
    While the military did not help Ebert the civilians did. May left wing parties and workers unions organised a city wide strike, cutting off; water, electricity and all bureaucracy. Paralyzing the city, and refused to go back to work until the Weimar Govt was restored.
    Kapp and the Freikorps left Berlin and Ebert's govt returned. The Kapp Putsch Exposed the weakness of the Weimar Government. Showed the growing power of the army. Exposed sympathy German army had for extreme right wing politics.
  • Germany Paying the Repercussions of the War

    Following the policy of fulfilment Germany met the first reparations payment in May 1921 and finished in August 1921. By the end of 1921, with the economy weakening, Germany announced it was unable to meet the second instalment deadline. Germany declared to France that they were in default. Following month France, with support of Belgium, occupied the Ruhr land, the most important industrial are of Germany.
  • Joseph Wirth Becomes Chancellor

    Joseph Wirth Becomes Chancellor
    1921 Economist Joseph Wirth becomes Chancellor leading a coalition of SPD (socialist) DDP (democratic) and centre parties. Wirth was a firm believer in democracy and republic. He appointed Jewish industrialist Walther Ratherau as Foreign Minister. Wirth and Ratherau believed in policy of fulfilment - wanting to meet all requirements of the ToV. This generated intense opposition from right wing groups who tended to be anti-communist, anti-socialist and anti-democratic.
  • Matthias Ezberger Is Killed

    Matthias Ezberger Is Killed
    August 1921 two ex-Freikorps shot dead Matthias Ezberger, one of the Novermber Criminals and the Reich Minister of Finance and member of the Centre Party. Many German people celebrated his death.
  • Walther Rathenau is Killed

    Walther Rathenau is Killed
    June 1922 right wing extremists shot Walther as they opposed the policy of fulfilment and the fact that a Jewish man was in government. This led to the government invoking Article 48 for the first time, to introduce: "Law for the Protection of the Republic.
  • French Occupation of the Ruhr

    French Occupation of the Ruhr
    With the support of Belgian troops, France took over and occupied the German Ruhr. French govt was determined to make Germany meet the terms of the ToV. France believed Germany had never accepted defeat and France was determined to make Germany fall in line with the terms of the ToV. German political parties united in the condemnation of the French action. German govt called for a passive resistance in the Ruhr. German workers in the Ruhr went on strike and France was forced to bring in workers.
  • German Strike Against French Occupation in the Ruhr

    German Strike Against French Occupation in the Ruhr
    German workers went on strike as a passive resistance to the French action in the Ruhr. France was forced to bring in their own workers to mine the coal. French troops had to deal with sabotage by right wing extremists. Thousands of Germans were foracbly removed from the Ruhr. Industrial leaders who didn't cooperate were imprisoned. Acts of violence increased, including the shooting of 12 German workers at the Krupp Steelworks in March 1923.
  • Hyperinflation Begins

    Summer 1932 govt costs had soared by 700%. Currency became worthless. Come profited form inflation - landowners, businesses, farmers. Germany didn't have enough money to pay for the reparations as well as the on strike workers in the Ruhr. Began to print more money. When they print more money value goes down and prices increase. This had been happening in Germany since the time of the Kaiser. Know as Hyperinflation. The denomination of banknotes increased. The largest note was 100T Reichsmarks.
  • Gustav Stresemann Becomes Chancellor of Germany

    Gustav Stresemann Becomes Chancellor of Germany
    Gustav Stresemann became chancellor of Germany in 1923 and also served as foreign minister until his death in 1929.
    He carried out important economic reforms and created new relationships between Germany and its neighbours.
    In 1924 Stresemann borrowed money from the U.S to help pay back the reparations of the war. 23B USD making its way into the German economy. This worked until the Wall Street Crash in 1929.
  • Hyperinflation Continues

    Hyperinflation Continues
    October 1923 Weimar govt released banknotes with a face 120 000T Reichsmarks and had plans to triple its daily output of the notes. By November the Treasury reported there were 400.3BT Papiermarks in circulation.
  • Munich Beer Hall Putsch 1923

    Munich Beer Hall Putsch 1923
    Southern German state of Bavaria, home of Nazi movement, hot bed for political unrest. Nov 1923 Nazis' attempted to seize control by force, hoping that it would trigger a national revolution. Hastily planned, the putsch took place on 8th Nov 1923. Heavily armed Stormtroopers encircled the Burgerbraukeller and detained the leaders of the Bavarian govt. Hitler announced a new govt led by him. The next morning the Putsch failed. Reinforcements entered the city.
  • Munich March

    General Ludendorff suggested the Nazis stage a march into the centre of Munich. Was a desperate move taken in the hope to secure last minute support for the Nazis. Police opened fire on the marchers. Within 1min 16 Nazis & 4 police were dead. Months later, in Munich court, Hitler and 9 conspirators, including Ludendorff, stood trial, charged with treason.
  • Hyperinflation Ends

    Hyperinflation Ends
    November 1923, to end hyperinflation, Weimar govt ended the Papiermark and introduced a new currency, the Rentenmark. Germany began to burn the only Reichsmark as it truly became worthless.
  • Notes on Hyperinflation

    Notes on Hyperinflation
    German did not have enough money to pay the reparations. France had taken the major industrial sector away from Germany. Weimar govt ordered the workers in the Ruhr to go on strike. Weimar promised to pay the workers their wages, although not working. Germany could not afford to do this, Weimar solution was to simply print more money. When govt prints more money value goes down, prices go up. This had been happening since the Kaiser. People blamed the Weimar govt.
  • People Affected by Hyperinflation

    People with savings lost the most as their savings became worthless. The elderly as their income/pension was fixed. those who were paid weekly or could renegotiate their pay daily were better off. Those who had taken out loans found it much easier to pay them back. The upper class, landowners did not suffer many effects of hyperinflation. There were food shortages as businesses did not have enough money to purchase produce from farmers. There was a rise in crime as Germans became desperate.
  • Hyperinflation Rebellions

    The hardships created during 1923 by hyperinflation led to many uprisings as groups struggled to take power from the govt. A nationalist group, Black Reichswehr, took over the govts of Saxony & Thuringia in October. Communists also took over the Rhineland & declared it independent the same month. A fascist group, Nazis, attempted a putsch in Munich in November.
  • Period: to

    The Golden Twenties

    1924 German economy entered a period of relative stability. Dawes Plan revised the reparations for the future. Foreign loans became available to Germany. Germany began to become an equal power in Europe. The Ruhr land was given back to Germany. Germany was on rocky ground living off foreign loans. 1929 Germany had a foreign debt of 25B Marks. Economy was in the hands of influential bankers. Unemployment remained high 5% in 1924 & 9% in 1929. Rural Germany remained depresses.
  • Period: to

    Violence and Social Divisions

    Level of violence in Germany had increased. Street fighting was frequent. Even in 1924-29 some 170 MP were killed. By 1930 economic disorder returned. Stahlhelm (Steel Helmets) an ex-servicemen's association made up of former Freikorps was supported by the Nazi's. Der Rote Frontkämpferbund (Red Front Fighters League) supported communist party. Late 1920's Nazi party had its own parlimantary group and military (SA or Stormtroopers)
  • Period: to

    Germany in the 1920's

    D.I.F.F.E.R.S
    - Dawes Plan
    - Inflation
    - French Leave the Ruhr
    - Foreign Affairs
    - Economic Growth
    - Reforms
    - Strength at the Centre
  • Period: to

    Economic Prosperity

    As Germany no longer suffered from inflation foreign banks were willing to lend money. By 1928 wages had increased by 10%, benefited the working class. Between 1924-29 German borrowers received 25 000M gold marks. New homes, factories, public facilities, roads & railways were built. Unemployment insurance was introduced. New airships, ocean liners, radio stations & film studios allowed Germany to appear more modern.
  • Hitler's Trial

    Hitler's Trial
    Hitler, Ludendorff and 9 other Nazis faced trial in 1924 charged with treason. Hitler used the trial as a way to express his view, and the ideologies of the Nazi party. The court delivered its verdict. Ludendorff was pardoned. Hitler was sentenced to 5 years in Munich prison. The court largely agreed with Hitlers' views and he was elegable for parole after 6 month in prison. By April 1924 Hitler was a national figure and so was the Nazi party.
  • Importance of Munich Beer Hall Putsch

    Hitler learnt power could not be achieved by force. He was committed to coming to power legally. 1933, 10 years later, Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. The events in Munich and the trial gave Hitler his moment of national publicity. Increased support from right wing nationalists & Hitler became leader for the right wig opponents. Munich Putsch made it clear that Hitler could not hold power without the support of the army. This support it what he lacked in 1923.
  • Mien Kampf

    Mien Kampf
    While in prison Rudolf Hess, Hitler's #1 fan, became Hitler's private secretary. Together they wrote Hitler's autobiography, Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
  • Dawes Plan

    Dawes Plan
    1924 Stresemann negotiated a loan from the USA of 800 million marks. He persuaded France, Britain and America to accept lower reparations instalments. Germany agreed to pay as much as it could afford each year, starting with 1 Billion marks.
  • Friedrich Ebert Dies

    Friedrich Ebert Dies
  • Paul von Hindenburg Becomes President

    Paul von Hindenburg Becomes President
    1925 was elected as the second president of Germany. 1932 he was persuaded to run for re-election even though he was 84 and in poor health. Because he was the only one who could beat Hitler. January 1933 when under pressure from advisers he appointed Hitler Chancellor even though the Nazi party held the most seats in the Cabinet and the Reichstag.
  • France Withdraws from the Ruhr

  • Lacarno Treaties

    Lacarno Treaties
    Stresemann's next move was to improve Germany's standing in the eyes of other countries. The Lacarno Treaties 1925, were 7 treaties in which the allied powers and Germany sought to normalize relations. They agreed on peace. Germany was allowed entry to the League of Nations in 1926. Allied forces give the Rhine Land back to Germany.
  • Germany Allowed into the League of Nations

    Germany Allowed into the League of Nations
  • Gustav Stresemann Dies

    Gustav Stresemann Dies
  • Wall Street Crash

    Wall Street Crash
    In October 1929 New York Stock market collapsed and American banks began to recall foreign loans. Germany couldn't afford to back back the loan and the reparations of the war and the German economy went into a depression.
  • The Start of the Great Depression

    October 19th 1929 investors traded 16 million shares on the New York stock exchange in a single day. Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors. Resulted in:
    -Many businesses in USA declaring bankruptcy
    -This in turn meant mass unemployment, caused the country into an economic depression
    -Millions of families went hungry and couldn't afford rent.
    -Streets were filled with people desperately searching for work, shelter and food.
  • Doubly Bitter

    Streets were filled with homelessness. People could not afford rent and moved into shaunty towns. Unemployment began to soar, putting extra pressure on the govt which now had to pay out more money to the unemployed. Many people in Germany felt "doubly bitter" with the Weimar. This was the second time the govt had thrown Germany into a large scale economic depression, the first time being in 1923 during hyperinflation.
  • What People Suffered in Germany following the Crash

    Young People - 1933 over half of all Germans between 16 & 30 were unemployed.
    Businessmen - Saw their businesses close. People had less money to spend on goods.
    Farmers - Had not done well in the 20's. Prices had been falling since 1925. In 1930's farmers slipped further into debt.
    Factory Workers - Some lost their jobs and others wages were cut, which made it difficult to pay rent and buy goods.
  • Weimar's Failings

    Economic problems nearly always produced political problems. Coalition govts in Germany found it hard to agree on how to help Germany through economic depression. Led the president to use Article 48 more and more often, so that Germany became run by more of a dictatorship. This crisis helped Hitler to gain the second most important job in Germany in 1933 - Chancellor.
  • Chancellor Heinrich Bruning

    Chancellor Heinrich Bruning
    Policies included:
    1. Tax increase
    2. Reduce govt spending
    3. High tariffs on foreign agricultural products
    4. Cutbacks in salaries & unemployment insurance
    5. Continued payment of the reparations imposed on Germany by ToV
    Bruning's measures prevented any renewal of inflation, but also paralyzed the German economy. Resulted in rising unemployment & a drastic fall in workers standard of living.
    Unable to solves Germany's problems he hastened the drift towards dictatorship, Article 48.
  • The Young Plan

    The Young Plan reduced Germany's reparations bills further. Was Proposed in August 1929 and agreed on in January 1930. Reduced total amount by 20%. Germany was to pay 2 billion marks per year - two thirds of which could be postponed each year if needed. U.S. banks would continue to loan Germany money.
  • National Socialism

    Stable Stresemann & the Great Depression
    The stable years of the 20's were not good for the Nazi party. 1929 the Great Depression and death of Stresemann. USA called back all foreign loans. Unemployment increased drastically. German people looked towards extreme ideologies for help. This gives the Nazi party an opportunity to gain power.
  • Who Was Hitler

    Who Was Hitler
    Born in Austria. Lost both his parents at a young age. Applied and was rejected from Austrian art school. Held strong German nationals ideologies. Lived on the streets at 21. Became extremely critical of the world. Identified with Germany and the army. Enlisted in the German army and fought in WWI. Fervently believed in the stab in the back myth. Committed soldier in WWI however showed an empathy to the lives lost in war.
  • Birth of the Nazi Party

    Birth of the Nazi Party
    Hitler remained in the army after WWI. He attended a meeting of the German Workers Party of 50 members, and began spying on them, investigating communist parties. September 1919 he became a member of the party. With the power of his speeches he quickly became the leader of the party. 1923 the failed Beer Hall Putsch. 1923 party had 70 000 members. While in prison he writes Mein Kampf and realised power cannot be taken by force.
  • Changing Nazi Tactics

    Hitler designed the Swastika in the early 1920's. He wanted a recognisable logo. He creates a 25 point plan to get the party into power. Mein Kampf becomes a best seller. Targeted the working class in his propaganda. Big businesses became investors for the party. Nazi members were sent on public speaking coerces. Joseph Goebels put was out in charge of propaganda. Nazi party also established new groups for different profesions.
  • Key Nazi Beliefs Contained in the 25 Points

    A strong Germany. Abolishing the ToV. All German people united in on country. Fuhrer - there should be a single leader with complete power. Social Darwinism - the Aryan race was superior and Jews were sub-human. Autarky - Germany should be economically self sufficient. That Germany was in danger from communism and Jews who had to be destroyed. Lebensraum - the need for "living space" for the German nation to expand.
  • World Views: Racism

    The protection & expansion of the German race was the highest priority. Aryans were the master race. Pure Germans were the descended from the Aryan race. He believed civilizations decline & fall when they fail to maintain the purity of the Aryan race. There is no freedom in Hitler's world. The sick, unhealthy and weak should be banned from having children. Ethnic cleansing was essential to maintaining the purity of the Aryan race.
  • World Views: Nationalism

    Hitler believed that Germany & the German people had lost their position of greatness. He was determined to restore it. The Nazi movement was ultra nationalist. Nazi's defined their targets for the German people to concentrate their hate & fear upon. These included the Jews & communists. Hitler gave many Germans what they wanted - someone to blame & someone to look to for salvation.
  • World Views: Democracy & the State

    The Nazi movement was anti-liberal & anti-democratic. Hitler expressed his contempt for democracy & the Weimar Republic. Mein Kampf discusses how Germans had been betrayed by the democracy imposed on them in 1918. Democratic ideas, personal freedom, equality& the rights of the individual played no part in Hitler's world. In his world Germany needed a strong leader who would lead the nation to its historic destiny & rule absolutely & without restraint.
  • World Views: Anti-Communist

    World Views: Anti-Communist
    Russia had become a communist country in 1917 & Hungary in 1919. At the same time the communist led Spartacists uprising had taken place in Berlin. Hitler linked his hatred of communism with his hatred of the Jews. He believed Russia was the centre of a Jewish conspiracy.
  • World Views: The Quest for Living Space

    World Views: The Quest for Living Space
    Hitler's vision was to form a greater Reich & it was the destiny of the German people, Volk, to create this & would dominate Europe. Germany therefore had to acquire land to assure the future survival of Germany. This meant expanding into Eastern Europe. He believed the master race would dominate & the inferior races would become slaves for the German people.
  • World Views: Social Darwinism

    World Views: Social Darwinism
    Darwin's concept of natural selection. That the strong prevail over the weak and that the superior races prevail over the inferior races. The concept, with it's theme of struggle and survival of the fittest, applied to Hitler.
  • Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany

    Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany
  • The Reichstag Fire

    The Reichstag Fire
    Communist Van der Lubbe is caught at the scene & blamed for starting the fire. Emergency decree - Hitler persuaded the President to pass laws which meant the govt could arrest & detain people without trial, search & confiscate propaganda, censor the press & stop other political parties. March Election - As a result of the decree the Nazis gained seats but still not enough to gain majority.
  • The Enabling Act

    The Law to Remedy the Distress of the People & the Reich. Became the cornerstone of Hitler's dictatorship. Allowed him to enact laws, including ones that violated the constitution, without approval of the Reichstag or President. Since the law required 2/3 majority vote in the Reichstag, Hitler prevented his opponents from voting. Nazis prevented all 81 communisis and 26 of the 120 Social Democrats from voting. SA & SS were stationed in the Reichstag to intimidate. As a result the law was passed.
  • Gleichschaltung

    Means "Bringing into line". Germany was to be Nazified. All aspects of Germany were to be controlled. Focus on political system, economy, culture, education. Was brought into effect through: civil service, trade unions, political parties, states and legal systems.
  • Joseph Goebbels

    Joseph Goebbels
    Son of an office worker.
    Did not fight in WWI due to a crippled foot - walked with a limp.
    Intelligent, well educated, good speaker.
    Joined the Nazi party in 1922.
    Initially opposed Hitler but becomes one of his biggest followers.
    Editor of the Nazi paper.
    Minister for propaganda.
  • Hermann Goering

    Hermann Goering
    Middle class background.
    Fighter pilot in WWI - fought with Red Barron.
    22 kills and highest award for bravery.
    Intelligent, witty and charming but also vain and greedy.
    Later became minister for police.
  • Rudolf Hess

    Rudolf Hess
    Soldier and pilot in WWI
    Joined the Nazi party in 1920
    Soft, sensitive and humourless man.
    Not ambitious or after power.
    Worshiped Hitler and was his private secretary.
  • Heinrich Himmler

    Heinrich Himmler
    Fought briefly in WWI.
    Former agricultural student.
    Frail, timid and clumsy as a child.
    Hardworking and precise.
    Joined Nazi party in 1923.
    Eventually made head of the SS.
  • Ernst Rohm

    Ernst Rohm
    Captain in WWI
    Working class background.
    Toguh, brutal and efficient leader.
    Violent temper.
    Member of the Freikorps after the war. Fought againist the Spartacist uprising.
    Founding member of German workers party in 1919.
    Supported Hitler in 1920 as leader.
    Set up and run the SA
  • The SA

    The SA
    Throughout the rise of the Nazis Hitter depended on the SA. They had fought loyally for Hitler against communists & helped him come to power. By 1934 the SA was an enormous organisation, more than 2M members. Leader Ernst Rohm was a potential rival to Hitler. Rohm wanted Hitler to continue the Nazi revolution by taking over major industries. Rohm also wanted the SA to take control of the army.
  • The Army

    The Army
    Much smaller than the SA, 100 000. Army was opposed to being taken over by the SA and was suspicious of Rohm. Hitler knew the army was important in gaining power. As soon as he became Chancellor he went to the army leaders to explain his aims. Army generals expressed their alarm of the SA & Rohm. While Hitler was in prison Rohm ran the party. Hitler needed the army: better trained, disciplined & the army could remove him from power. The army had support of businesses
  • List of Unwanted Persons

    Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich & Hermann Goring worked on a list of people who were to be eliminated. It was known as the "Reich List of Unwanted Persons". List Included:
    Ernst Rohm
    Karl Ernst
    Kurt von Schleicher
    Gustav von Kahr who crushed the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923.
    Herbert von Bose and Edgar Jung who worked for Franz von Papen.
  • Period: to

    The Night of the Long Knives

    Hitler couldn't afford to lose the support of the army, nor could he allow Rohm to gain so much power. On the night of June 30 1934, on Hitler's orders, Rohm and other SA leaders were arrested. They were taken to prison and shot. Over the following week hundreds of other SA leaders were murdered along with dozens of other rivals to Hitler. The killings were done by the black-shirted SS. Some Nazis described the killings as "the Night of the Long Knives". Others called it "the bloody purge".
  • Paul von Hindenburg Dies - Hitler Takes Power

    Paul von Hindenburg Dies - Hitler Takes Power
    President Paul von Hindenburg dies and Hitler takes over as President.
  • Hitler Becomes President

    Hitler Becomes President
    On August 2 1934, just after the Night of the Long Knives, President Hindenburg dies. Within hours Hitler declared himself president. He was now President, Chancellor, Head of State & Commander of the army. Even soldiers swore on an oath of personal loyalty to Hitler. "I will give unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, the Fuhrer of the German nation and people. . ."
  • The Cult of the Fuhrer - The Hitler Myth

    It developed from the long standing Fuhrer idea in the Nazi party. It was in response to a long period of weakness & instability of the Weimar Republic - back to the days of the Kaiser. Helped through deliberate & calculated propaganda. Strong authoritarian tradition in German history. Nazis acheived real success in their early years which helped it. Hitler was sent to deliver the Germans from poverty & weakness. THE HITLER MYTH WAS A NAZI TACTIC USED TO PRESENT HITLER AS A GOD LIKE FIGURE.
  • Gleichschaltung - Women

    The three K's:
    Kinder - Children: Mothers of large families.
    Kirch - Church: Teach Nazi morals and values to their family.
    Kuche - Kitchen: Good housewives to their husbands. Reichsbrauteschule - Reich Bride School
    Loans of 1000 Reichmarks for marriage. More children the less you had to pay back.
    Medals for women who had more children - Bronze for 4 children, Gold for 8 children.
    More children meant higher social standing.
    Forced/encouraged abortions for handicap children.
  • Women During War

    Back to work: forced to do both roles, heavy work that women were not used to.
    Lebensborn: "Donate a baby to Hitler". - Single women were asked to sleep with Aryan SS soldiers to have their children, the govt will then give them benefits.
    Difficulties: Men at war meant no children and women began having affairs, smoking and drinking due to stress.
  • Gleichschaltung - Men

    Men & women were to live in separate spheres. "Women have a smaller world." - Hitler addressing the Reichstag. Men expected to be workers or soldiers, Aryan, members of the Nazi party. Men should marry and have Aryan children as soon as possible & as many as possible. Men should be military trained & protect the family.
  • Gleichschaltung - Young People

    Children and young people were seen as incredibly important to the future of Germany. Young people were indoctrinated into the Nazi party through Hitler Youth and education.
  • Hitler Youth

    Hitler Youth
    Membership reached over 1M in 1932 when the Nazi's were doing well in elections. Membership doubled to 2M when Hitler became Chancellor. 1934 membership was nearly 6M as Hitler became Fuhrer & people were afraid not to join. Age 6-10
    Boys: The Pimpfen (Young Fellows)
    Girls: N/A Age 10-14
    Boys: The Deutche Jungvolk (The German Young People)
    Girls: The Jungmadel (The Young Girls) Age 14-18
    Boys: The Hitler Jungend (The Hitler Youth)
    Girls: The Bund Deutche Madchen (League of German Maidens)
  • Hitler Youth - Boys

    Hitler Youth - Boys
    The boys in the Hitler Youth were being prepared to enter the male sphere - work, politics & army. They went on camps. Basic military training - including close combat competitions. Hitler Youth members would get a badge and HJ Knife when they passed their tests. Boys would receive political training & learn about Nazi ideas & sing songs. Bravery tests - including jumping from 1st floor windows. Extreme fitness training & cross country.
  • Hitler Youth - Girls

    Hitler Youth - Girls
    Girls were being prepared to entre the women's sphere - the home & family. The League of German Maidens taught: how to raise a child, sewing, washing, domestic science (science of keeping a house), racial science (how to choose the correct Aryan husband, advanced cooking, camping, hiking, cross country, political training, oaths of loyalty and singing.
  • Gleichschaltung - Education

    Gleichschaltung - Education
    Education was massive to Hitler's plans. If he could get education right he would be bringing up a whole generation of fanatically loyal soldiers and mothers who had never knew anything other than the Nazi way of life.
  • Gleichschaltung - Teachers

    Gleichschaltung - Teachers
    1933 teachers were forced to join the German Teachers League and be members of the Nazi party. All Jewish teachers were sacked. Having good, Nazi teachers was vital to ensure the young were taught "correctly".
  • Gleichschaltung - Religion

    Gleichschaltung - Religion
    Hitler needed to control the Churches in Germany if he wanted total power. The Church was a huge influence on the people, as it offered a life after death hope. At the very least Hitler had to make sure the Church was on his side. Hitler wanted to stomp out the Churches but in 1933 he was not strong enough. Around 90% of Germans were Christian. Hitler wanted to be seen as a God - there was no room for 2 Gods. The Church had the kind of control over hearts & minds that Hitler needed.
  • The Catholic Church

    The Catholic Church
    Hitler did not want to battle the Church. The Pope had too much power. Hitler made an agreement called a Concordat in 1935 - Nazis would leave all Catholic Churches, schools and groups alone, in exchange for the Pope staying out of all German political matters. Hitler and the Pope signed this. The Nazi Faith Movement, designed by Hitler as an alternative to Christianity. Pagan styles of worship were not popular under Nazi rule.
  • The Cult of the Fuhrer - A Man of the People

    The Cult of the Fuhrer - A Man of the People
    Joseph Goebbels controlled Nazi propaganda & all media in Germany - I.E. radio & newspapers. Hitler could be seen as caring, moderate & responsible, but also strong & authoritarian. Goebbels created a bond between Hitler & the people. Many still supported him until the end in 1945 & even decades after.
  • The Cult of the Fuhrer - Attraction of Hitler: Adults

    The Cult of the Fuhrer - Attraction of Hitler: Adults
    When Hitler spoke in public he would often wear military dress to inspire the German people. He manipulated the use of slogans to rhyme in people's heads. He spoke with volume & passion. He would begin softly & finish loud & strong to create the illusion that he cared so much for the cause & worked people into a frenzy. He created urgency. Used direct eye contact to capture the minds of people. Gave Germans a scapegoat - Jews & Communists. Pulled on peoples heartstrings - appeared kind & gentle.
  • The Cult of the Fuhrer - Attraction of Hitler: Youth

    The Cult of the Fuhrer - Attraction of Hitler: Youth
    Germany had many youth groups. Law of 1936 merged all these youth groups together - created the Hitler Youth Movement. This was compulsory after 3 yrs for all children aged 10-18. The Hitler Youth Movement was an extension of Hitler's belief that the future of Nazi Germany were its children. 1936 - 4 mill members. There were separate organisations for boys & girls. Boys - Military. Girls - Motherhood. Some children avoided Hitler Youth & formed own groups. The largest the Edelweiss Pirates.
  • The Edelweiss Pirates

    The Edelweiss Pirates
    The Edelweiss Pirates was formed by a group of German children who did not want to join the Hitler Youth Movement. They rebelled against Hitler's views of the Hitler Youth Movement. They would often go around beating up Hitler Youth members in an attempt to drive them out and deter others from joining.
  • The Cult of the Fuhrer - Use of Force

    The Cult of the Fuhrer - Use of Force
    Depicted the perfect leader. SA & the Gestapo used fear & intimidation to bring everyone into line & to abide by Hitler. They enforced the Fuhrer's ideologies and laws to the people. They would make sure that everyone was praising Hitler & not demining him. They would arrest people who did not praise him. Because Gestapos were spies they would listen for anyone talking bad about Hitler.
  • Purpose of the Nazi Rule

    Hitler had three main purposes:
    1. Rebuild Germany's economy
    2. Make Germany a powerful nation again
    3. Create a "pure" German society by getting rid of racial minorities, especially Jews. To achieve these aims quickly, Hitler required complete obedience from the German people. Everybody thus found that they were being controlled more and more by state authorities.
  • Work and Bread

    Work and Bread
    Before Hitler came to power 6 million Germans were out of work. He promised "work and bread" in the election campaigns of 1932-33.
    Aims:
    1. To reduce unemployment
    2. To build up German armaments industry & enlarge the German army, navy & air force.
    3. To make Germany autarky. Economically self-sufficient so it could not be blockaded in times of war.
    4. Remove all Jews from the workforce.
  • Problems for Hitler's "Work and Bread"

    In 1935 Germany faced major economic difficulties.
    1. World trade had collapsed due to the Great Depression. It was difficult to export goods.
    2. Germany was short of certain essential raw materials.
    3. Germany could not afford to pay for the many imports required.
  • Work and Bread

    Work and Bread
    The National Labour Service gave men jobs on projects needing large amounts of manual labour, such as planting new forests & digging ditches for farms. This was expanded so men would in uniform & sent to work camps. Men received pocket money, rather than wages & did military drills as well as work. In 1935 a Reich Labour Service Law said that all men aged 18-25 must spend 6 months in the labour service. Unemployment figures dropped sharply.
  • Public Work Schemes

    A law of 1933 expanded road building programme by ordering the creation of a network of motorways. This gave work to 80, 000 men over the next 5 yrs. A Law to Reduce Unemployment gave governments grants for building new homes, schools, hospitals and other public services. All building had to be done by hand.
  • Rearmament

    Rearmament
    From 1935 onwards all 18-25 yr olds had to do military service for 2 yrs. The armed forces thus grew from 100K in 1933 to 1.4 mill in 1939. This decreased unemployment by over one million people.
  • The New Plan

    Devised by Dr Hjalmar Schacht between 1934-36. This plan solved the economic crisis in Germany & enabled Hitler to rearm his forces.
    - Imports were limited
    - Trade agreements to get more money into Germany
    - Government spending increased - not into army
    - Unemployment was reduced - invented jobs
    Schacht's plan was a success. But by 1935 Hitler wanted to prepare Germany for war & Schacht did not think Germany could afford to rearm. Hitler sacked Schacht & a new plan was required.
  • The Four Year Plan

    Devised by Herman Goering with the aim to prepare for war within 4 yrs. Aims:
    1. To reduce unemployment - most men conscripted, forced labour & working in arms factories.
    2. Build up industries for war - coal, iron, oil & metal. New industrial plants & factories, massive building of planes, ships & tanks.
    3. Autarky - businesses persuaded to produce synthetic rubber, oil & textiles in case a blockade, imports reduced further, tight controls on workers wages.
  • Totalitarianism, Racism and Propaganda

    Totalitarianism - a system of government that is centralized & dictator like & required complete subservice to the state.
    Racism - the discrimination of an individual or group based on their racial or ethnic background.
    Racism - the belief that different races poses distinct characteristics, abilities or qualities, that can distinguish them as inferior or superior to one another.
    Propaganda - information, biased or misleading, used to promote a political cause or ideology.
  • Racism

    The Nazis wanted to preserve the purity of the German race by restricting the activities of other races, particularly the Jews (anti-Semitic). They would create a master race.
  • Pre-war Treatment of the Jews

    Phases of Nazi racial policy towards Jews.
    1. Vilification - the Nazi propaganda machine played a decisive part aiming to make Germans dislike & fear Jews
    2. Discrimination - laws passed depriving Jews of their rights
    3. Separation/segregation - the removal of Jews from the community & their resettlement to the East
    4. Extermination - the systematic killing of the Jews & others in extermination camps.
  • Stage 1 - Persecution

    Stage 1 - Persecution
    The Nazis started a propaganda campaign against Jews. Jewish shops were boycotted & there were anti-Semitic posters & films designed to turn Germans against Jews.
    1933 one day anti Jewish boycott of Jewish shops.
    1934 increased anti Jewish propaganda.
    1934 Germans beaten up for going into Jewish shops.
  • Stage 2 - Restrictions

    Stage 2 - Restrictions
    The lives of Jews started to become restricted. Laws stopped them from having certain jobs or doing certain activities. This was meant to make life harder for them.
    1933 Jewish teachers sacked
    1935 Jew not allowed to join the army
    1935 Nuremburg Laws - Jews not allowed to marry or have sex with Germans, Jews lose German citizenship.
    1937 Jewish businesses confiscated.
  • Stage 3 - Segregation

    Stage 3 - Segregation
    By 1938 the Nazis were introducing laws designed to separate Jews from the rest of German society. This was to make everybody believe they were not German.
    1938 - Jews have to register all their property
    1938 - all Jewish passports are stamped with letter J
    1939 - all Jewish people have to change their middle name to Israel or Sarah. Jews forced to wear a yellow star.
  • Stage 4 - Violence

    Stage 4 - Violence
    After Kristallnacht & the start of WWII, the Nazis began a stage of violence. The invasion of Poland brought a huge number of Jews under German control.
    1939 - all Jews in Poland must register their occupation. Non-essential workers were taken away.
    1940 - Jews put into ghettos.
    1941 - "The final solution to the Jewish problem" - Death Camps.
  • Jews Deprived of Basic Rights - Vilification

    Jews Deprived of Basic Rights - Vilification
    1st April 1933 - boycott of Jewish businesses, shops & offices. SA men painted slogans on Jewish businesses & prevented Germans from entering. From April 1933 Jewish people could no longer work for the govt, this included teachers in public schools. Between 1933-35 laws were passed to remove Jews from civil service, education, health & legal systems. April 1933 the Law Against the Overcrowding of German Schools, restricted the number of Jewish children who could attend govt schools.
  • Jews Deprived of Basic Rights - Vilification

    Jews Deprived of Basic Rights - Vilification
    September 1933 - Hereditary Farm Law, banned Jews from owning farmland. Jews were expelled from the artistic & cultural life of Germany and removed from elite sporting teams & forbidden to represent Germany in international competitions. Many middle class Germans did not approve of the new policies against the Jews.
  • Expansion and Aggression

    Expansion began in 1935 - Democratically with the SAAR Plebiscite. 1919 ToV put it under League of Nations control & run by France.
    1935 Saarlanders were given vote to remain under league control, become French or become German.
    9/10 voted to become German.
  • Period: to

    Policy of Appeasement

    UK, France & US had power & resources to check the aggressive actions of Germany, Italy & Japan during the 30's but failed to do so on account of the policy of appeasement followed by them towards the Axis Powers.
    PoA reflected their desire for peace.
    Essentially the allied powers did nothing, not wanting to cause a war
  • The Nuremburg Laws

    The Nuremburg Laws
    Laws barring Jews from being German citizens & took away their most basic rights. Series of laws over the next 5 yrs stripped Jews of every other right. Law for the Protection of German Blood & Honour - banned marriages between Jews & Aryans & forbade them to have any sexual relations outside of marriage. Reich Citizenship Law - made Jews subjects rather than citizens.
  • Discrimination

  • Violence: Attacks on Jews

  • Control

  • Police Control

  • The Gestapo

  • Party Control

  • Nazi Definition of a Jew

    In November 1935 the govt defined the term "Jew" as "anyone who is descended from at least 3 grandparents who are racially full Jews, or anyone who is descended from 2 full Jewish parents."
  • Expansion and Aggression

    Remilitarizing the Rhineland.
    Germany was not allowed within 50km of River Rhine. Locarno treatires 1926 confirmed this.
    German hated this in the 1930's.
    1936 Hitler sent 32 000 troops into the Rhineland.
    French were going through political crisis - Britain did not care. Neither wanted war over the Rhineland.
  • German Troops Enter the Rhineland

    The Rhineland was a region of Germany that was demilitarised after ToV. Germany was not allowed to have troops in the Rhineland. Hitler's actions showed how he was willing to directly challenge the treaty.
  • Hitler Speaks Out About Jews

    September 1937 - Hitler made an outspoken attack on the Jewish people for the first time.
  • Nazi Germany Annexed Austria

    Went against ToV, which banned Germany from uniting with Austria. However the arrival of German troops was met with great enthusiasm by many Austrians.
  • Union With Austria

    Hitler wanted to unite with Austria. Would break ToV. He ordered Austrian Nazi party to begin causing trouble, making it look as if Austrian govt could not control the country. He then sent German army in to "Bring order." Austrian leader protested hovever was forced to resign & replaced with Nazi leader. German army entered Austria on 12 March. 13th March Hitler announced Anschluss (union).
  • The Nuremburg Laws - Addition

    The Nuremburg Laws - Addition
    April 1938 - Jews had to register their property. This made it easier to confiscate.
  • Period: to

    The Nuremburg Laws - Addition

    June-July 1938 - Jewish doctors dentists and lawyers were forbidden to treat Aryans and other Germans.
  • The Nuremburg Laws - Addition

    The Nuremburg Laws - Addition
    October 1938 - Jews had to have the letter J stamped on their passport.
  • Occupation of the Sudenland

    Similar methods used. Ares of Czechoslovakia where 3 million German speaking people lived. German army entered Sudetenland to "Bring order". No other country helped Czech. Munich agreement allowed Hitler to instead seize Sudetenland in October 1938.
  • Kristallnacht

  • Kristallnacht

  • Kristallnacht - Why did it happen

  • Recap of The Nuremburg Laws

    When - September 1935, additions made later. Main laws:
    1. Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour
    2. The Reich Citizenship Law Effects - minority groups were isolated. German people are forced to obey the laws and stop associating with Jewish people.
  • Additional Nuremburg Laws

    August 1938 - The Law on the Alteration of Family & personal Names
    October 1938 - The Decree on Passports of Jews
    September 1941 - The Police Regulation on the Marking of Jews.
  • Germany Invaded Czechoslovakia

    Hitler had ordered the occupation of a part of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland (in October 1938). Many hoped that this would be the last conquest of the Nazis. However in March 1939 he ordered his troops to take over the remainder of Czechoslovakia. This was the first aggressive step that suggested that a war in Europe would soon begin.
  • Expansion - Occupation of Bohemia and Moravia 1939

    Munich agreement only dealt with Sudetenland - Hitler wanted to claim rest of Czech. Claimed that Germans in Bohemia and Moravia were being illtreated. Threatened to bomb Prague. Czech President gave Hitler Czech.
  • Expansion - Danzig and the Polish Corridor

    Expansion - Danzig and the Polish Corridor
    Land North East of Germany. Divided by the Polish corridor. April 1939 Hitler demanded the return of Danzig to Germany and railway through Polish corridor. British and French dropped policy of appeasement and guaranteed a protection for Poland.
  • Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact

    Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact
    August 23 1939 Nazi Germany and Soviet Union surprised the world by signing the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, in which the two countries agreed to take no military action against each other for the next 10 yrs. Stalin viewed the pact as a way to keep USSR on good terms with Germany. Hitler used the pact to make sure Germany was able to invade Poland unopposed. Pact also contained secret agreement in which Soviets & Germans agreed to later divide Eastern Europe. Pact fell apart in June 1941
  • WWII Starts - The Fall of Poland

    WWII Starts - The Fall of Poland
    Sep 1st Germany invades Poland. Blitzkrieg allows swift victory for Germany. Nazi propagandists falsely claimed that Poland had been planning to encircle & dismember Germany & that the Poles were persecuting ethnic Germans. SS staged a phony Polish attack on a German radio station. Hitler used this action to launch a "retaliation" campaign against Poland.
  • Fall of Poland

    Fall of Poland
    Poland mobilized late & political considerations forced its army into a disadvantage deployment. Heavily outnumbered. Polish army was defeated within weeks. Britain & France standing by their guarantee of Poland's border had declared war on Germany Sep 3rd 1939. USSR invaded eastern Poland Sep 17 1939. Last resistance ended on October 6.
  • The Invasion of Poland

    The Invasion of Poland
    Purpose: Take over Europe and Poland
    Key People (Countries): Germany, France, Britain.
    Outcome: Hitler won. Brough Britain and France into WWII.
  • Blitzkrieg

    Germany launched the surprise attack at dawn on Sep 1st 1939. More than 2, 000 tanks supported by nearly 900 bombers and over 400 fighter planes. In all Germany deployed nearly 1.5 million men in the invasion.
  • Polish Forces

    Poland mobilized late, & political considerations forced its army into a disadvantage deployment. Polish army lacked modern arms & equipment, has few armoured & motorized units, & could deploy little more than 300 planes, most of which the Luftwaffe destroyed in the first few days of the invasion.
  • Soviets Attack

    Soviets Attack
    The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east on September 17. The Polish govt fled the country the same day. Germany and the USSR partitioned Poland on September 29.
  • Germany Turned West - Invaded France & Netherlands

    In May 1940 Germany used Blitzkrieg tactics to attack France and the Netherlands. British troops were forced to retreat from the beaches of Dunkirk in northern France.
  • The Fall of France

    The Fall of France
    Purpose: Conquer France and win Europe.
    Key People (Countries): Germany and Italy vs. France and Britain.
    Outcome: Hitler won. Britain now stood alone as the last remaining enemy of Hitler's Germany in Western Europe.
  • The Battle of Britain

    Purpose: Destroy British air power & air industry - using Blitzkrieg.
    Key People (Countries): Germany vs. Britain.
    Outcome: Britain won. Avoided takeover by Germany.
  • Period: to

    The Blitz during the Battle of Britain

    For the following nine months the German air force (Luftwaffe) launched repeated bombing raids on Britain towns and cities. This was known as the Blitz and was an attempt to bomb Britain into submission.
  • Operation Barbarossa

    Operation Barbarossa
    In May 1941 Hitler ordered a change of tactics. He decided to halt the bombing of Britain and launched an attack against Russia. He betrayed Stalin and broke the non-aggression pact. This was a bold move that would be an important turning point in the war.
    Purpose: Germany wanted more land/resources
    Key People (Countries): Germany vs. USSR
    Outcome: USSR won. Harsh winters & scorched earth used by Russians. End of non-aggression pact.
  • Pearl Harbour

    Pearl Harbour
    Purpose: Destroy US military power/fleet
    Key People (countries): Japan (Hideki Tojo) vs. US
    Outcome: Bring the US into WWII
  • Pearl Harbour - Japan

    Pearl Harbour - Japan
    After attacking Pearl Harbour, the Japs seized Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong, Malaya, Burma & the Dutch East Indies. The Japs also defeated American & Filipino forces, led by U.S. General Doughlas MacArthur, in the Philippines.
  • D-Day: Allied Invasion

    D-Day: Allied Invasion
    Purpose: Invade France to push Germany back across Europe
    Key People (countries): Dwight D. Eisenhower, US, British & Canadian troops.
    Outcome: Allies win and move through France towards Germany. Begins the decline of German power.
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    Purpose: Major leaders must decide what to do with Europe after WWII.
    Key People (countries): President Roosevelt USA, Stalin USSR, Churchill Britain
    Outcome: Marshall Plan is established, US to help Japan and West Germany.
  • Hitler's Death

    Hitler's Death
    Hitler committed suicide officially halting WWII from progressing any further. Germany would discuss surrender with Europe and would officially cease fighting in Europe on May 8th, 1945.
  • V.E Day

    V.E Day
    WWII ends in Europe. Germany's formal unconditional surrender of its armed forces
  • Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    Purpose: To force a Japanese surrender through use of nuclear power.
    Key people (countries): U.S., Japan, President Harry S. Truman
    Outcome: Japan surrenders, WWII ends.
  • WWII Ends

    WWII officially ended.
  • Period: to

    Nuremberg Trials

    Purpose: Bring Nazi leaders to justice
    Key People (countries): Nazi leaders, USA, Britain, USSR
    Outcome: Many key Nazi leaders are punished, many key figures committed suicide.