Module 1: History of Special Education and Inclusive Education Timetoast Timeline - Jasmine Garcia

  • First U.S Special Education School

    First U.S Special Education School
    On April 15th, 1817 the first Special Education school opened in the United States, known as the American Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb in Hartford, Connecticut. It was founded by Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, Dr. Mason Cogswell, and Laurent Clerc and became a state-supported school by the end of its first year. Today, this school is now known as The American School for the Deaf.
  • Council for Exceptional Children

    Council for Exceptional Children
    On August 10th, 1922 the International Council for the Education of Exceptional Children was organized by a group of administrators and supervisors attending the summer session at Teachers College, Columbia University, and their faculty members. The Council initially began with 12 members. Elizabeth E. Farrell (as shown in the picture) was the Founder and first President (1922-26). Today, the CEC is just as vibrant and dedicated to improving student outcomes.
  • PARC v. Pennsylvania

    PARC v. Pennsylvania
    On January 7th, 1971 the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) sued the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for discrimination against children with disabilities. On October 8th, 1971, the Court ruled that states cannot deny students with disabilities access to free public education. This decision was the foundation for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which eventually led to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
  • Mills v. B.O.E

    Mills v. B.O.E
    On August 1st, 1972 the Mills v. Board of Education of the District
    of Columbia case expanded the ruling of PARC beyond
    children with developmental disabilities, to children with behavioral, mental, hyperactive, and emotional disabilities from being denied placement in a public education. The court held that no child may be denied a public education because of disabilities. Thus, schools must provide supplemental services needed for children to attend schools at no cost to the parent.
  • Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    Rehabilitation Act of 1973
    Section 504 of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act was the first disability civil rights law to be enacted in the United States. It prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in programs that receive federal financial assistance. More specifically, this law includes FAPE and LRE, which ensures that neither a school nor individual teacher can exclude a student based on their disability. This ultimately led to a more inclusive environment for students to learn, move, explore!
  • Hudson v. Rowley

    Hudson v. Rowley
    On June 28, 1982 the Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley case altered the definition of free and appropriate public education (FAPE) to include sufficient but not optimal support for special needs students in general education classrooms. The ruling marked the first time that the court had interpreted any portion of the EHA. Today, the “educational benefit” standard established in Rowley has paved the way for improvements in academic performance.
  • Honig vs Doe

    Honig vs Doe
    On January 20th, 1988 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled (6–2) that a California school board had violated the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA; later the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) when it indefinitely suspended a student for violent and disruptive behavior that was related to his disability. This is a historic mention because it established that schools cannot expel students for behaviors related to their disabilities.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
    On July 26th, 1990 the Americans with Disabilities Act was signed into law by President George W. Bush. This act ensures that people with special needs have the same rights as everyone else in all circumstances. This act also indicated that people with special needs would not face discrimination in school, the workplace, or in everyday society settings such as public transportation. To learn more, visit:
  • IDEA

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is a law that makes available a free appropriate public education to eligible children with disabilities throughout the nation and ensures special education and related services to those children. This act allowed agencies to provide early intervention, special education, and related services to those eligible. Beyond this, the act supported the inclusion of students with disabilities by ensuring that they can receive the same quality.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act

    Every Student Succeeds Act
    On December 10th, 2015 the Every Student Succeeds Act was passed and signed into law by President Barack Obama. The law replaced its predecessor, the No Child Left Behind Act, and included provisions that will help to ensure success for students and schools. More specifically, under ESSA, parents of students with disabilities have clearer access to information that assists them in knowing how their children are doing in school. -->