Midterm Timeline Project

  • Period: 500 to 1450

    Medieval Period

  • 1030

    Guido of Arezzo's Micrologus

    The document described the sight singing system (or syllable system).
  • Period: 1098 to 1179

    Hildegard of Bingen

  • 1323

    Ars Nova Treatise

    The treatise laid the groundwork for modern notation (especially with meter signatures). This makes it one of the most influential and significant treatises in the history of Western music.
  • Period: 1450 to

    Renaissance Period

  • 1485

    Josquin's Ave Maria... virgo serena Motet

  • 1529

    Martin Luther Chorale: Ein feste burg (A Mighty Fortress...)

  • 1538

    Arcadelt Madrigal: Il bianco e dolce cigno

  • 1562

    Palestrina: Pope Marcellus Mass

    The work represented Palestrina's Style, which became a model for later generations. It is still the ideal in present-day textbooks on counter-point.
  • Victoria: Missa O magnum mysterium

  • Gabrieli Sonata pian' e forte

    -Where: St. Mark's Basilica
    -Two fold importance:
    1) It is one of the first pieces in history to specify what instruments play what parts.
    2) It is the first piece of music in history to designate dynamics.
  • Period: to


  • Monteverdi's L'Orfeo

  • First Public Concerts in England

  • Period: to

    JS Bach

  • Antonio Vivaldi's L’Estro Armonico

    This collection is the most influential publication of any music in the early 18th century. It launched the immense popularity of the Italian concerto throughout Europe.
  • Rameau's Traité de l’harmonie

    This treatise is the most influential of all Theoretical Works. The work introduced the terms tonic, dominant, and subdominant (established 3 chords as pillars of harmony) and it defined the root of a chord and recognized inversions. This treatise became the basis for teaching functional harmony that is still used today.
  • Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier: Volume 1

    These demonstrate the possibilities for playing in all keys using an instrument tuned in near-equal temperament.
  • Period: to

    Pre-Classical Period

  • Period: to

    Franz Joseph Haydn

  • Handel's Messiah

  • Period: to

    WA Mozart

  • Period: to

    Viennese Classical Period

  • Period: to

    Le Chevalier de Saint-Georges as director of Concert des Amateurs

    The Concert des Amateurs was one of the finest orchestras in Europe. Le Chevalier de Saint-Georges led one of the world's first modern orchestras at the time.
  • Mozart's Don Giovanni

  • Haydn's Symphony No. 94 "Surprise" (premiere date in London)

    It was written in 1791, but it premiered in London in 1792.
  • Beethoven- Symphony No. 5 in C minor (premiere date)

    This piece is recognized by the ominous four-note motif at the beginning. For years, people have interpreted this motif as "fate knocking on the door". This symphony is considered one of Beethoven's greatest musical works.
  • Schubert- Erlkönig (composition date)

    This piece is considered to be one of the greatest ballads ever created. The text is a poem (written by Johann Wolfgang Van Goethe) that is centered around a Scandinavian folktale. This poem tells the story of a boy who complains to his father about the Elf King who is whispering to him and trying to take him away. At the end of the poem, the father tries to save the son, but he soon realizes his son died in his arms. To increase the horror, Schubert uses many musical devices.
  • Rossini- Il Barbiere di Siviglia (premiere date)

    This piece is considered to be a cavatina. A cavatina is an entrance aria in which a character introduces themselves. This aria is a patter aria. This type of aria is typically sung by Buffo (comic) characters, has rapidly delivered lines, is sometimes mixed with nonsense syllables, and is repeated often with incredible speed and precision.
  • Niccolò Paganini 24 Caprices for Violin, op.1 (complete first publication)

    This piece was dedicated to "alli Artisti" (professional musicians) and was deemed unplayable by many. The theme served as basis for variations by other composers such as Brahms, Liszt, and Rachmaninoff).
  • Berlioz- Symphonie fantastique (composition date)

    This piece was inspired by Berlioz's obsession with Shakespearean actress Harriet Smithson. He married her and later divorced her. This is one of the first programmatic symphonies.
  • Period: to

    Frederic Chopin- Mazurkas Op.7 (composition date range)

    The mazurkas contain personal musical utterances of Chopin's life. In this work, Chopin allows the listeners into his heart. The work has many folk elements that combine single mazurka features from various dances.
  • Fanny Mendelssohn-Hensel Das Jahr (composition date)

    This piano cycle is known as one of the greatest piano suites of the nineteenth century. Das Jahr, consisting of twelve pieces named after months of the year, is centered around the places and events on her journey.
  • Period: to

    Louis Moreau Gottschalk- Souvenir de Porto Rico

    This piece was composed while Gottschalk was on tour of the Caribbean. He created the theme based on a Puerto Rican song played by wandering bands on Christmas Eve. The work's form suggests the sound of the musicians in the distance who gradually approach, pass by, and march away.
  • Mussorgsky- Pictures at an Exhibition (original piano version)

    This work was inspired by a visit to an art exhibition. Each movement represents a piece of art work on display. Mussorgsky composed this work as a memorial to his friend.
  • Bizet- Carmen (premiere date)

    This opera is considered as Opera Comique, meaning there is spoken dialogue instead of recitative. The plot is a semiserious drama centered around a gypsy named Carmen. This opera contains one of the most memorable pieces in history.
  • Wagner- Der Ring des Nibelungen (premiere of complete cycle)

    This musical drama features continuous music and an extensive use of leitmotifs (motives that represent a person, place, or thing). The significance of this opera is that it contains the piece "The Ride of the Valkyries", which mostly influenced the societal image of opera for years.
  • Brahms' Symphony No.4 (premiere)

    This symphony is the last of his symphonies. It is the only one of Brahms' symphonies to end in a minor key. This work was considered to be absolute music since Brahms was a conservative and did not believe in program music.
  • Mahler- Symphony No.1 (premiere)

    This work incorporates music that represents post-Romantic "irony" and the juxtapositions between the "banal and the beautiful".
  • Claude Debussy- “Voiles” from Préludes Book 1

  • Arnold Schönberg- Pierrot Lunaire

  • Igor Stravinsky- The Rite of Spring (premiere)

  • Manuel de Falla- Homenaje (Homage)

  • George and Ira Gershwin- “I Got Rhythm"

  • Margaret Bonds- "The Negro Speaks of Rivers"

  • Dimitri Shostakovich- Symphony No.5 premiere

  • Duke Ellington- Cottontail

  • Period: to

    Aaron Copland- Appalachian Spring

  • John Cage- Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano

  • Miles Davis- Kind of Blue

  • George Crumb- Ancient Voices of Children

  • John Adams- Short Ride in a Fast Machine