MIdterm history 223

  • Period: 1390 to

    Kingdom of Kongo

    1390-1891, oldest and most centralized kingdom in central coast of Africa, began to sell slaves to Portuguese as early as 1502, Catholic, dangerous circle of Portugal needs slaves so they sell guns, this gives Africa more guns to rebel, and Africa needs guns so they sell slaves, population comparable to London at time, Portuguese exploited wars between kongo and Ndongo Kingdoms
  • Period: 1500 to

    Plantation Slavery

    16th-19th Century,
    North America- Indigo, Tobacco, Rice, Sugar, male and female (perpetuity enslaved)
    Caribbean- sugar Plantations
    Brazil- Largest Slave state in the world, Sugar, Gold, mostly Male
  • Period: 1500 to

    Triangle Trade

    16th-19th century, the connection of trading goods from Europe for Human slaves from Africa, then taking the slaves to North and South America to farm and work, then shipping the resources from these countries back to Europe. 12.5 million Africans
  • Period: 1500 to

    The Middle Passage

    16th-19th Century, the middle length of the triangle trade which millions of slaves crossed the Atlantic from Africa to the Americas, seven-week trip, about 700 died each ship 10-15%
  • Period: 1500 to

    Maroon Colonies

    16th 19th Century, Escaped Slaves hid in swamps, groups: black Seminoles in Florida, backcountry Louisiana…, a threat to plantation societies- maroon wars in Jamaica 1728-1740 and 1795-1796, Pico Blvd. in LA named after a member of a maroon colony
    1850s Enforcement of the US Fugitive Slave Act drove the country towards civil war,
  • Period: 1500 to

    Slave trade

    16th-19th century, average life expectancy Atlantic slave trade 5 years,
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    Mercantilism

    17th century, keeping as much of a countries wealth in its own country, importing and exporting as little as possible. Colonies were important because they transported the raw materials to the European homeland.
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    Chattel slavery

    mid 19th Century, new world, reducing a slave from a human to a person or property, no laws, 1857-Dred Scott decision- supreme court ruled African slaves “had no rights which a white man were bound to respect” In Americas based on Skin Color,
    perpetuity slavery- descendants are slaves and so on, One drop rule- one drop of slave blood in family line=slave, one drop rule lasted until 1960s
    Thirteenth Amendment in December 1865 formally ended the legal institution throughout the United States.
  • Indentured Servants

    1627, Barbados first settled by English planters employing English and Irish, Poor workers from Europe obligated to work for 5-7 years in the Americas in return for a free trip there
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    Industrial Revolution

    1750-1850 first, began in Britain because it developed out the scientific revolution within Europe and the population was easily accessible so coal could be brought to the center, 1850-WWII Second, the second half of the 19th century really introduces colonialism due to the end of the slave trade and the industrial revolution
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    Biological old and new regimes

    old Bio regimes pre1750- humans lived based off of the sun (candlelight, food, shelter, limited transportation…) limits on population and productivity, food, lifespan
    New Regime, -people have now harnessed the energy flow, no longer dependent on annual solar energy flows, living longer healthier, richer, and more productive lives, electricity and many other things invented, most profound transformation since the development of agriculture (10,000 years before), hygiene
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    First Industrial Revolution

    light machines that did work
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    Freedom suits

    1755-1769, Britain began to rethink slavery, slavery was not part of the British common law, allowed people to challenge slavery, Equiano's book was respected in Britain. “Series of lawsuits in Britain, mostly Scotland, somehow they proved that slavery was not part of the common law system, therefore, it is illegal but did NOT apply to the colonies, continued in carribbeans particularly
  • Black Hole of Calcutta

    1756, small prison in Fort William, India, after the fall of Fort William 127 people died and Britain used it to rally the nation to colonize India
  • Olaudah Equiano

    1789 Published “the case against slave trade” the book was published and read around the world, his audience are the manufacturers, uses Christianity and enlightenment to help his arguments. People who owned slaves are hard to relate to because they believed they were morally right because they didn’t consider slaves humans, he appealed to the owners through describing improvements in the economy without slaves (believed it would make Africa richer so they could buy British goods)
  • Freetown

    1792, Capital, principal port, and largest city of Sierra Leone, founded by British Naval Lietenant, John Clarkson, part of larger slave colony Sierra Leone which was founded by a British Buisnessman and attempted to rehabilitate slaves of Nova Scotia and London who attempted to stop the African Slave trade through the spread of Christianity
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    Serfs

    19th century, freed in Hapsburg (royal Austrian house) in 1854, freed in Russia in 1861, Serfs had no freedom and were peasants tied to the land,
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    Coolies

    19th Century, voluntary and involuntary workers (indentured workers) from China and India, California Railroad: 10,000 coolies. Natural resources needed for the IR
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    The abolitionist movement

    19th Century, Civil war, January 1st, 1863 emancipation proclamation in effect, but slaves were not really freed until Juneteenth 1865,
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    Relationship between the Industrial Revolution, capitalism, and imperialism

    19th-early 20th century, Capitalism gave the average person money, let companies invest in machines, imperialism stole land and gave raw materials from the land to the IR for cheap,
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    Second Wave Imperialism

    19th century, before the world had many strong centers (polycentric), forces that led to the 2nd wave- end of the slave trade, Rise of nationalism, the growth of capitalism, steam power transportation (travel, trade, further shipping)
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    “White Man’s Burden”

    19th Century, British’s Justification for Colonizing, Rudyard Kipling wrote about the US and the Philippines, whites have the ‘moral duty, to help civilize people of color.
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    “Mission Civilisatrice”

    19th century, Frances propaganda to justify colonization, it is France’s duty to give the rest of the world their Culture
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    “Little Brown Brothers”

    19th Century, US propaganda to colonize the Philippines, Americans were against colonization because they were once a colony, President Mckinley explained that God told him to colonize the Philippines after Spain
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    Charles Darwin

    1809-1882, Published On the origin of species by means of natural selection 1859, his thoughts were wrongfully associated with society starting with “the descendant of man”1871,
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    Karl Marx

    1818-1883, wrote the communist manifesto in 1848, wealthy german jew, highly educated journalists, Friedrich Engels was Marx’s closest collaborate a German socialist philosopher collaborated on the manifesto, believed you could only seize power through violence, thought that the socialists did too little. Saw the turn from the first IR to the second IR, investigates the life of a factory worker. “violence is the midwife of every old society that is pregnant with the new”, stages of history
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    Socialism

    1820s-1970s, Robert Owen (1771-1858) owned and ran a factory in Wales was an example of a working socialist experiment, treated workers much better and the factory still succeeded (cheap housing, limited work days, no children working, set up schools and daycares=workers work harder, want to keep their job) He set the model for other companies
    Key:government takes control of MINOR part of the economy (certain natural resources) butSocialists about improving working conditions
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    American Colonization Society

    1822-1862, set up a government in Liberia, Americans didn’t know how to integrate slaves to society and resettled them in Africa because of racism and poor economic conditions in the U.S., Run by the quakers
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    Liberia

    1822-1862, 15,000 Black Americans migrated to Liberia, the Americans set up the government and took the power from the indigenous people, developed poor relationships with indigenous people, the indigenous people did not gain citizenship until 1904, they didn’t know if they would be integrated to society, and racism, bought and colonized by US. part of Abolitionist movement,
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    Cultivation system

    1830-1870, a scheme created by the Dutch after failed investments due to Belgium's split off, the Dutch forced Indonesian self-sufficient indigenous laborers to work or farm for the Dutch. The Dutch became wealthy overnight in profits and Land and many Indigenous Indonesian people were forced into famine. 60 days work
  • Slave market in Brazil

    1831, primary source description of a slave market, Robert Walsh, a cleric, Physician, Publicist, “knows about health”
    The salve market operates like a livestock market, in a warehouse at the port, right after slaves arrive
    Compared the women to his daughter, individualizes the women
    The slaves were compared to animals
  • slavery eliminated in the colonies

  • communist manifesto

  • Proletariat

    1848, Communist Mannifesto, effects of industrialism on factory workers, Karl Marxist term for the working class, those who were engaged in industrial production, Marx’s hope was for them to rise up and overthrow the capitalist factory owners which he referred to as bourgeoisie
  • communism

    teleology- explaining a phenomenon by the end result, stages of the history from primitive state...communism with many in between and between each stage existed revolution and violence. Society organized by means of production, run by workers, no state only common interests of workers, no nationalists “government planned economy” “violence is the midwife of every old society that is pregnant with the new”,
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    Sigmund Freud

    1856-1939, Austrian physician, used a technique “psychoanalysis” to treat “hysteria”, 1900 he published The Interpretation of Dreams, second IR, began to scientific everything, a new way of thinking, freud broke down the human body, “conscious self and unconscious self, you don’t know what your unconscious self is doing”
  • Sepoy Rebellion

    1857, “the great mutiny”, poor Indian people were paid minimally to fight in the Bengal army by the Brits, the Indians did not want to consume the animal fat that was used to grease the guns and needed to be “bit off” before loading, they were imprisoned but their comrades came to their rescue in the Sepoy rebellion
  • Period: to

    civil war

  • emancipation proclamation

  • 13th Amendment

    1865, Slavery shall not exist UNLESS it is a punishment to a crime
  • 14th Amendment

    1868, African Americans are given citizenship and equal protection,
  • Suez Canal

    1869, the opening of the canal and the transcontinental railroad complete the same year, connects Mediterranean sea with the Gulf of Suez, cuts off 7,000 K instead, safer shorter trips, Europe easily accessible, Mediterranean and Indian ocean connected, effect- facilitated colonialism, more direct c
  • Social Darwinism

    1871, Herbert Spencer wrongly compared Darwin’s ideas with Society, “social Darwinism” applying natural selection to race, used to increase nationalism leading to WWI as well as support imperial ventures, used it to justify racism, and colonialism for the IR,
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    Second Industrial Revolution

    1871-1914, next stage of industrialism, the first IR introduced steam power and the Second IR introduced much new high-technology that altered the world’s history including steel, electricity, and chemicals, Germany surpassed Britain in steel
  • Brazil last country in americas to abolush slavery