Historical Timeline of Community Colleges, including Phoenix College and MCCCD

Timeline created by mdguerra602
In History
  • Morill Act of 1862 (Land Grant Act)

    Morill Act of 1862 (Land Grant Act)
    Community colleges in America, originally called junior colleges or two-year colleges, date back to the Morrill Act of 1862 (the Land Grant Act), which expanded access into public higher education (Dury, 2003)Link text. In the South, African Americans couldn't attend these institutions (1890 Land Grant History) Link text.
  • Morrill Act of 1890

    Morrill Act of 1890
    The second Morrill Act (1890) provided for the withholding of federal funds to those colleges that withheld student admission to land grant colleges based on race unless the states provided for separate institutions for minorities, in particular, African Americans (Dury, 2003). See detail of map Link text
  • Period: to

    Splitting Universities into "Senior Colleges" and "Junior Colleges"

    This decision to split universities into Senior colleges and Junior colleges was that universities wanted to focus on research rather than teaching (Dury, 2003). Dury (2003) claims elitism motivated universities to split the colleges.
  • First Junior College Established

    First Junior College Established
    In 1901 that the first junior college in the United States was founded. Joliet High School in Chicago Illinois, introduced college-level courses into his high-school curriculum. The result was the establishment of the first independent public Junior College
    in America (Dury, 2003).
  • Period: to

    Community Colleges Grew Slowly at First

    By 1910, only three public junior colleges existed. By 1914 there were 14 public junior colleges and 32 private junior colleges (Dury, 2003). More than half of the colleges were affiliated with a church. Some offered vocational education, but most were geared toward university preparation (Dury, 2003).
  • The American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC) was founded

    The American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC) was founded
    In 1920, the American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC) was founded (Now called American Association of Community Colleges. Tension arose between members wanting to focus on vocational training and members wanting to focus on university preparation. Other issues: Lack respect, image recognition, division in vision for community colleges (Dury, 2003).
  • Phoenix College Established

    Phoenix College Established
    On September 13, 1920 Phoenix College welcomed its first 18 students, and was initially housed on the Phoenix Union High School campus. Programs of study included: chemistry, English, home economics, mathematics, mechanical arts, military training, physical training and Spanish.
  • Phoenix College's first stand-alone campus

    Phoenix College's first stand-alone campus
    In 1926, Phoenix College relocated to its first stand-alone campus, a mansion called Anderson House on Cottonwood Court, across the street from the high school
  • Phoenix College moves to current location

    Phoenix College moves to current location
    Thomas Rd. and 11th Ave. Phoenix, AZ
  • Period: to

    Great Depression: Surge in Enrollment

    This surge in enrollment happened primarily because young
    adults were unable to find work and the U.S. saw an increase in high school graduates. From 1929 to 1939, enrollment jumped from 56,000 to 150,000
  • War World II: 2.2 Million Veterans attended Community Colleges

    War World II: 2.2 Million Veterans attended Community Colleges
    In 1944, the G.I. Bill of Rights provided educational benefits for WWII veterans.
  • Changing Name from Junior College to Community College

    Changing Name from Junior College to Community College
    "In 1946, Jesse R. Bogue became the executive secretary of the American Association of Junior Colleges
    (AAJC) and began to promote the term “community college. Later, he published a book entitled The Community College, which was the vehicle that popularized the name" (Dury, 2003).
  • Period: to

    1960s: Community College Growth

    In the 1960s, enrollment rapidly increased and "community colleges grew more rapidly than any other segment in higher education. The World War II baby-boom generation became of age and sparked this surge. Community colleges expanded during this time at the rate of one new college per week" (Dury, 2003).
  • Maricopa County Community Colleges District Established

    Maricopa County Community Colleges District Established
    Maricopa County Community Colleges District was established in 1962 and governs 10 colleges: Phoenix, Mesa, Gateway, Chandler-Gilbert, Glendale, Scottsdale, Rio Salado, Paradise Valley, Estrella, South Mountain.
  • Period: to

    Community Colleges 1970s - 1980s

    "During the 1970s, community colleges continued rapid enrollments going from 1.6 million students to more
    than 4.5 million in 1980" (Dury, 2003). They were recognized as vocational institutions and university transfer enrollment declined.
  • Phoenix College: First Woman President

    Phoenix College: First Woman President
    In 1989, Dr. Myrna Harrison becomes Phoenix College's first woman president
  • By 1998 nearly 1,100 Community Colleges in the U.S.

    By 1998, "nearly 1,100 community colleges [existed] in America, enrolling more than 10 million students annually" (Dury, 2003).
  • Phoenix College: First Latina President

    Phoenix College: First Latina President
    In 2001, Dr. Corian Gardea was the first Latina named president of Phoenix College.
  • Phoenix College: First African American President

    Phoenix College: First African American President
    In 2018, Dr. Larry Johnson became the first African American named as Phoenix College's President
  • Phoenix College Celebrates 100 Years (1920-2020)

    Phoenix College Celebrates 100 Years (1920-2020)
    Phoenix College celebrates 100 years (1920-2020).
  • Community Colleges in 2020 (Fast Facts)

    Total: 1,050 Community Colleges
    57% Women
    43% Men
    Demographics:
    Hispanic 26%
    Black 13%
    White 45%
    Asian/Pacific Islander 6%
    Native American 6%
    Average age: 28
    First "Gen" 29%
    Single parents 15%
    Veterans 5%
    Students with Disabilities 20%
    Prior BA 8%
    Average Tuition $3,730 vs 4-year college (in state, public) $10,440
    (Source: AACC, 2020).